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'Mm- ■■■..■& ■ IzM 




with Ray Harryhausen and 

Other Tabletop Gods 









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ta-a a o 





Why can't you buy TREK on a 
newsstand? Because we are a high- 
quality magazine which is not aimed at a 
mass audience. TREK is aimed at one 
type of reader only: The true Star Trek 
fan and collector. 

Sure, we'd love to be nationally 
distributed. We could reach many, many 
more fans, and frankly, make a lot more 
money. And if we could do so without 
changing our format, TREK would be on 
your local newsstand in a minute. 

But when a magazine goes national, it 
has to appeal to the widest possible 
audience to thrive. And since we don't 
want to run articles comparing Mr. Spock 
to Fonzie; or the umteenth "intimate" 
look at the Bionic Woman; TREK is 
available only one way: By mail order, 
and in a few carefully selected book- 

TREK is about Star Trek; first and 
foremost. We look at everything about it, 
from the actors to the special effects; and 
we always do it from the viewpoint of a 

fan, what he wants to see and read, the 
questions he wants answered. Yes, we 
occasionally run articles about things 
other than Star Trek. But we always make 
sure that they are things which will 
interest our readers; we don't include 
them just because of their "name" value, 
or because they are currently faddish. 

As TREK is not published on a large 
scale, we are able to take the time and 
care to make it worth the little more each 
issue costs our readers. We print TREK 
on the best paper and with the best 
material available. Then we fully trim it, 
wrap it in a heavy cover, and bind it to 
last a lifetime. A copy of TREK won't fall 
apart after one reading; you can add it to 
your collection and treasure it for years. 

If you haven't already seen an issue of 
TREK, we urge you to order a sample 
copy today. Or subscribe, and save the 
postage. We think that you'll agree that 
TREK is the finest Star Trek magazine 
available anywhere, at any price. 

Trek 2 (tabloid) $2.00 + 25 cents postage 

Trek 3 (tabloid) $2.00 + 25 cents postage 

Trek 6 $3.00 + 25 cents postage 

Trek 7 $2.50 + 25 cents postage 

Trek 8 $2.50 + 25 cents postage 

Trek Special 1 $2.50 + 25 cents postage 

Have each issue of Trek delivered directly 
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because we pay the postage! 

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The Magazine For 
Star Trek Fans 

8225Kingsbrook Rd.,#116 
Houston, Texas 77024 





SEPTEMBER 1977 **£ 

Business and Editorial offices: 

STARLOG Magazine 

O'Quinn Studios, Inc. 

475 Park Ave. South, 8th Floor Suite 

New York, N.Y. 10016 


Kerry O'Quinn, Norman Jacobs 

Editor in Chief: 

Kerry O'Quinn 


Howard Zimmerman 

Assistant Editor: 

Ed Naha 

West Coast Editor: 

David Houston 

Art Director: 

Linda Bound 

Production Manager: 

David Hutchison 

Production Assistant: 

Grant Nemirow 

Writers This issue: 

Jim Burns, John Ciofli, David Gerroid, Vic 
Ghidaiia, David Hirsch, Don McGregor, James 
Oberg, Tom Rogers, Kirsten Russell, Susan 
Sackett, John Warner 
Other Contributors: 

Howard Cruse, Ray Harryhausen, Malcolm 
Klein, Norman Prescott, Jesco Von Puttkamer, 
Mel Roberts, Roy Torgeson, Jeff Siliifant, Wade 
Williams, Gene Warren /■ 

About the Cover: Gene Warren's Excelsior 
Animated Moving Pictures studio produces 
all of the animated sequences for TV's Land 
of the Lost. Here, Harry Walton, chief 
cameraman and animator, positions a model 
dinosaur for the next frame in an action 
sequence. For all of the "ins" and "outs" of 
tabletop animation see Special Effects: Part 
III, starting on page 50. 

STARLOG is published eight times a year by O'Quinn 
Studios, Inc., 475 Park Ave. South, 8th Floor Suite, New 
York, N.Y. 10016. This is issue Number 8, September 
1977 (Volume Two). All content is copyright © 1977 by 
O'Quinn Studios, Inc. Subscription rates: $9.98 for eight 
issues delivered in U.S. and Canada; foreign subscriptions 
$15.00 in U.S. funds. STARLOG accepts no responsibility 
for unsolicited manuscripts, photos, art or other materials, . 
but if free-lance submittals are accompanied by a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope they will be seriously 
considered and, if necessary, returned. Reprint or 
reproduction in part or in whole without written 
permission from the publishers is strictly forbidden. 



Letters From Our Readers 


Latest News From The Worlds of Science Fiction 6 

Fall SF-TV Preview 7 


A Photo Review of the Classic SF Thriller 18 


Science Fiction's Angry Man Spins Some Tales of 
Backstage Battles and Sounds Off on Some of 
His Favorite Gripes 22 


A Column of Opinion by David Gerroid 



A Fan News Column by Susan Sackett 


A NASA Space Authority Takes Us on a Tour of 
The Space Shuttle Enterprise and Explains How 
You Can Qualify to Travel Into Space 34 


Another Look at the War That Is Winning Over 
The World and at the Stars of the War 





Why America Wakes Up Early on the Weekends 42 


Current (1976-77 Season) Saturday Morning SF 
Productions 46 


The Techniques of Model Animation are Explained 
with Photos from the Creations of Ray Harryhausen 
and Other Tabletop Gods . — 50 



Setting Sail in Pursuit of Halley's Comet 


As I was leaving the theater after my first screening of Star Wars, I heard two- 
people arguing about the scientific accuracy of some of the film's dialogue. 
Someone walking up the next aisle also heard and shouted across the room, "SO 

He was right. 

So was everyone in the audience who gasped and hissed when Darth Vader 
first appeared, a looming figure stepping ominously through a smoke-filled 
doorway. So was everyone who cheered with delight when Han Solo propelled 
his customized starship into faster-than-light speed to escape the Imperial troops. 
So was everyone who sat paralyzed during the end titles, tears rolling down their 
cheeks, so thrilled with John Williams' magnificent music and with the 
adventure they had just lived through that they wished it would never end. 

Star Wars is a supreme example of what can happen when a creator has a 
vision and, by some miracle, is permitted to carry through and build his vision 
into a true work of art. 

In this case, the man with the vision was George Lucas. He has given us a film 
of uncompromising integrity with a spirit so innocent and positive as to be 
almost as alien in today's culture as the creatures in the cantina sequence. I have 
no idea what behind-the-scenes battles Lucas fought in order to achieve this 
result, but I, and every other person who has been thrilled by Star Wars, owe 
this man a profound "thank you." 

Lucas really didn't have the "track record" Hollywood studios usually 
demand before they turn over nine-and-a half million dollars, but somebody 
powerful up there at 20th Century-Fox likes us and has the brains to evaluate a 
vision along with the guts to give the creator a free hand. 

Between the power and the vision we were treated to a rare piece of inspiration 
that hits us like pure oxygen. It doesn't make us want to battle the Death Star, 
but it does make us anticipate battles that we can fight, and it gives us the 
spiritual fuel we need for preparing. George Lucas, has presented us with a 
dramatization of the spirit he has proved he possesses. 

Our world desperately needs exciting challenging visions in order to help us see 
beyond the dull details of everyday life — to see dullness for what it is rather than 
expecting it to be all there is. The more we expect from life, the more we 
demand of our lives, and the more battles we are eager to fight in order to 
achieve our greatest ambitions. A culture that does not dream of the stars is 
doomed to stagnation. 

Many a young life will be changed forever by the inspiration that Star Wars 
engenders, and consequently, so will the world. 

Kerry O'Quinn/Editor-in-Chief, 1977 

There are moments in our lives when we seem to see beyond the usual. Such are 
the moments of our greatest happiness. Such are the moments of our greatest 
wisdom. If one could but recall his vision by some sort of sign. It was in this 
hope that the arts were invented. Sign-posts on the way to what may be. Sign- 
posts toward greater knowledge. 

Robert Henri/New York artist, 1926 


Thank you for the article entitled "Special 
Effects — Part I" that was written by David 
Hutchison for the June issue of STARLOG. 
It was so fascinating that I read it to my hus- 
band, who is blind. He even stopped working 
on his FM tuner to listen. 
Sue Robinson 
Bowling Green, Kentucky 

At first David Hutchison's article on mini- 
atures seemed old hat until I realized that 
while I've been interested in Special Effects 
for years and am quite familiar with them, a 
good number of your readers may not be. 
From that perspective the article is quite good 
and informative; one of the best on the sub- 
ject of miniatures. 

Buzz Dixon 

Ft. Huachuca, Arizona 

David Hutchison's Special Effects in No. 6 
was excellent. In his future articles I hope he 
will explain how the special effects for such 
movies as The Incredible Shrinking Man and 
2001: A Space Odyssey were made. 

Adam Tuchman 

Providence, Rhode Island 

Dave says that by the time the FX series is 
completed, you will be able to tell us how 
those movies were made. 


. . .In STARLOG No. 6, on page 28, Katie 
Saylor (Liana) is mentioned in the photo 
(caption) from the show's second episode, 
"Atlantium." If memory serves me correctly, 
it's not Miss Saylor in the photo but Mary 
Ann Mobley, who also appeared in that 
episode. Right? 
Jim Saldana 
Joliet, Illinois 



... I would like to warn your readers of a 
company known as Star Fleet Research, Inc. 
This company was at the Boston Star Trek 
Convention in April 1976, selling working 
phasers at $75.00 each. After complaining to 
the Better Business Bureau and the company 
itself I received a letter from the company 
stating that because of a manufacturing 
problem I would have to wait an additional 
18 weeks. I had already waited FIVE 
MONTHS! ! ! It has now been one year since I 
sent in my $75.00. 

MarkE. Hogan 

Nahant, MA 
Before spending that much moijey you would 
do well to check with the local Better Business 
Bureau to be sure there are no complaints 
pending against the company. Ripoff dealers 
are as plentiful in the science fiction world as 
Tribbles are on the Enterprise, but don 't get 

turned off to the honest, high quality dealers 
who are building a long-range business. 
Along those lines, STARLOG cannot be 
legally responsible for our advertisers, 
however, we make every effort to assure their 
reliability and integrity. If any reader ever has 
any problem with one of our advertisers, we 
would appreciate hearing from you at once. 
In a sense, we try to stand behind everything 
in our magazine, ads included, so that 
STARLOG readers can order products with 
complete confidence. 


... I would appreciate your keeping in 
touch with me and letting me know the pro- 
gress of the soundtrack to Rocketship X-M. 
If you are taking advance orders, I'll take two 

Alex Van Schuylen 

Burbank, California 

In STARLOG No. 7 we mentioned that this 
issue would contain an announcement about 
the soundtrack score of X-M (by the great 
American composer Ferde Grofe). Unfortun- 
ately, other projects have delayed production 
of what we plan as the first of many STAR- 
LOG records of interest to science-fiction 
fans. Please, no advance orders . . . All the 
details will be announced in the next issue. 


•. . .I'm sure you will receive many letters 
pointing out an error in your list of the 
animated Star Trek episodes (STARLOG No. 
6), namely that the episode "Beyond the Far- 
thest Star" was first aired on Sept. 8, 1973 — 
not Dec. 22, 1973. Since your information 
came from The Star Trek Concordance, the 
goof really isn't yours. There is an interesting 
explanation for the error. In September 1973, 
when the animated Star Trek debuted, 
George Takei, who of course played Mr. 
Sulu, was running for political office in Los 
Angeles. Mr. Takei's opponents complained 
that his appearance in reruns of the live- 
action Star Trek on KCOP-TV were in viola- 
tion df the Equal Time rule. To avoid having 
to give equal time to every other candidate, 
KCOP yanked every episode featuring Mr. 
Sulu off their schedule until after the elec- 
tion. Since the initial animated episode 
" Beyond the Farthest Star" featured Sulu, it 
could not be run. . . So the first air date in 
Los Angeles for "Beyond ..." was the date' 
of the first rerun for the rest of the country: 
December 22, 1973. 

Jim Lawson 

San Diego, California 


I would like to make an official announce- 
ment about the condition of Space: 1999. 
Gerry Anderson has told me that there is no 
personal argument between himself and ITC 
but it does seem to be all washed-up between 
them. But ITC is not the only hope for the 
continuing of 1999. One possibility is ABC's 
Patric Pleven who is on their programming 
staff and is interested in buying the rights 
from ITC and continuing the series. If we are 
to save 1999 we must all make contributions 
like writing letters, contacting other fans, and 
spreading information around. We would ap- 
preciate it if you could send your comments, 
questions, and hopeful suggestions (and 
return address) with an SASE to Michael 
Cruthers, P.O. Box 328, Somerset, Califor- 

nia, 95604. We would also like to have any in- 
formation on groups similar to ours. 

Michael Cruthers 

Somerset, California 


... I love your mag, but you didn't even 
mention my name as the owner of the van 
that your photographer got a picture of at 
Space Con-3 (STARLOG No. 6, Log En- 

Douglas L. Nelson 

Livermore, CA 
Actually, there are quite a few more things we 
did not mention from that convention. 
There's always more happening at a con than 
we have room for in STARLOG, but thanks 
for identifying yourself. 


Please settle an argument that our science 
fiction club had at a couple of our meetings. 
We (or should I say "I") need a professional 
opinion. Some members say that the ABC- 
TV movie, Boy in a Plastic Bubble ,was a 
science- fiction film, others say it wasn't. 
Please help settle this. 
Robert Bryanston 
Dallas, Texas 

// all depends, of course, on how you 
define "science fiction. " When Hugo Gems- 
bach coined the term in the thirties, he had a 
very strict definition for it: a story that dealt 
with some aspect of hard science and an ex- 
trapolation of that scientific investigation in- 
to a new, unusual, or future situation. This is 
what we today would call a "hardware" 
story. More recently, many SF authors have 
tried to broaden the scope ofSFby redefining 
it as "speculative fiction. " Bearing all of this 
in mind, we would have to say that the initial, 
operative situation of a person forever 
separated from his natural environment by a 
plastic, life-supporting barrier and the 
ramifications of living in this anti-human 
condition, clearly fits most definitions of 
science fiction. However, that particular 
show did not develop the inherent SF setting 
within which it functioned. Therefore, we 
have concluded that Boy in a Plastic Bubble 
is a love story that takes place within an 
undeveloped SF framework. (Whew!) 


... In the (STARLOG No. 6) Science-Fic- 
tion Address Guide an omission was made of 
the recently released Demon Seed. 

Allan Fix 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 

I recognize the fact that you have probably 
been deluged by letters from SF fans from all 
over the country pointing out films missed by 

your STARLOG No. 6 compilation of 
science-fiction films. But out of love of SF, 
I've decided to throw in my two cents worth; 
you overlooked Demon Seed and Embryo. It 
is for STARLOG, as Mr. Spock would say, 
"most illogical." 

Bruce Banner 

Odessa, Texas 
No, we have not been -deluged by letters, 
because we never published a "compilation 
of science-fiction films. " If you will go back 
and look at No. 6 again, page 35, you will see 
that the listing is for the "STARLOG Science 
Fiction Address Guide. " In the blurb directly 
underneath the title, it states "Although this 
is by no means an exhaustive catalog of all SF 
films, it is invaluable as a permanent 
reference guide to the major studios and their 
current addresses. " The only "illogic" that 
we can find here is in not believing what we 


... I am a born-again Christian, and was 
incensed as any other Star Trek fan to learn 
that a Christian station would censor Trek in 
the mistaken belief that anyone might take its 
occasional forays into possession and witch- 
craft seriously. You neglected to mention, 
however, that the same U.S. Constitution 
that guarantees you freedom of the press also 
guarantees these people the right to show (or 
not show) whatever they please on their own 
television station. 

Jean Peacock 

San Diego, California 


I saw the issue of STARLOG that had the 
list of addresses where fans could write for in- 
formation about different SF shows. But by 
the time I got to the store again, that issue 
was gone. Could you please re-print the ad- 
dress for The Fantastic Journey"! 

Donna Martin 

West Springfield, Massachusetts 

. . . The cancellation of an excellent show 
like Fantastic Journey is a tragedy which does 
not reflect on the show itself, but on the way 
the system works. 

Fred Patrick 

Bayshore, New York 

The mailing address for NBC is 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, New York, New York, 
10020. Fantastic Journey may be gone, but it 
is not forgotten. The next issue of STARLOG 
will feature an exclusive interview with Tared 
Martin, who portrayed Varian, the future- 
man on F.J. 

Because of the large volume of mail we 
receive, personal replies are impossible. 
Comments, questions, and suggestions 
of general interest are appreciated and 
may be selected for publication in future 
Communications. Write: 

STARLOG Communications 

475 Park Avenue South 

8th Floor Suite 

New York, N.Y. 10016 




According to SFX ace Jim Danforth, the producers of 
King Kong have intentionally misled such leading critics as 
"Charles Champlin, Arthur Knight, Richard Shickel, and 
others," into believing that the film's massive gorilla was 
enacted by a forty-foot tall robot. In fact, talented young 
make-up artist Rick Baker designed a Kong suit and 

portrayed the beast throughout most of the film. The only 
screen appearance of De Laurentiis' lauded mechanical ape 
is during the production's stadium sequence. Perhaps some 
of us could disregard this hype, but Oscar-winning special 
effects ace Jim Danforth (Outer Limits, Seven Faces of Dr. 
Lao, When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth), took deeper action. 
A week after the academy of Motion Picture Arts and 
Sciences announced that they were presenting King Kong a 
Special Achievement Award for visual effects, Jim 
submitted his resignation to the organization. In an 
interview published in Frederick Clarke's Cinefantastique 
magazine, Jim elaborated: "I wrote a letter to the 
Academy's Board of Governors to explain to them why I 
felt their actions were not justified. I went to great lengths 
to point out that Rick Baker was not in any way in my 
opinion to be considered a 'special visual effect.' No more 
than Bert Lahr could be considered a special effect when he 
played the Cowardly Lion in The Wizard of Oz . . . .It was 
proposed that Rick Baker be qualified for a special Board 
of Governors' award for make-up which they've given in 
the past to films like Seven Faces of Dr. Lao and Planet of 
the Apes. Bill Taylor, one of the Effects Committee 
members, actually wrote a formal letter to the Board of 
Governors to officially propose that Baker get such an 
award and they turned it down." Dino De Laurentiis had 
also pressured the Academy. "I have first-hand 
knowledge," continued Danforth, "that someone at the 
Dino de Laurentiis organization did send a letter to the 
Board of Governors after the Effects Committee had voted 
not to give them the award, saying in effect 'Aw c'mon, 
folks, let's reconsider this.' That is an absolute fact."' 


The 1^977 Nebula Awards were presented by the Science - 
Fiction Writers of America (SFWA) on April 30 with the 
ubiquitous Isaac Asimov as toastmaster. The Nebula 
Awards were presented in four literary categories: for Bes 
Short Story, Charles L. Grant's "A Crowd of Shadows;" 
Best Novelette, "Bicentennial Man" by Isaac Asimov; Best 
Novella, "Houston, Houston, Do You Read" by James 

Tiptree, Jr.; and Best Novel, Frederik Pohl's "Man Plus." 
There was no award made for the fifth category, Best 
Dramatic Presentation. Nominated for that award were: 
"Harlan!," an Alternate World Recording with Harlan 
Ellison; The Man Who Fell To Earth, produced by Cinema 
5; and Logan's Run, screenplay by David Zelag Goodman. 
The SFWA, in contrast with, for example, the Mystery 
Writers' Guild, has no award for best screenplay or best 


Gene Warren, one of Hollywood's top veteran special FX 
artists,has been tallying up a number of prestigious credits 
for his studio — in particular, his work on NBC's Man From 
Atlantis. Mr. Warren is responsible for the remarkable 
underwater submarine sequences — remarkable since most of 
the shots are filmed "dry" with water effects optically 
superimposed. The submarine, well-conceived as an 
underwater research vehicle, is a model built to '/2-inch 
scale, 32 inches long,and took three weeks to build. On the 
screen the sub appears to be a very realistic 70 feet long. 
Some of Mr. Warren's earlier credits read like the honor 
roll of SF-Fantasy with such films as The Time Machine, 

The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm, and the 
highly regarded Outer Limits. Gene's work in current 
feature films is represented by Paramount's Black Sunday. 
The thrilling action climax of the film is being billed as 
"one of filmdom's greatest engineering feats," but the man 
largely responsible for its effectiveness is Gene Warren. 
However, for reasons known only to Paramount, he is 

uncredited for his SP-FX work. Mr. Warren combined live- 
action footage filmed at two different Orange Bowl games 
with specially staged grid action and 71,000 extras with his 
own model work to achieve the effect of the Good Year 
Blimp descending into the midst of the Superbowl game. 
For a look at some of his work on TV's Land of the Lost 
see STARLOG SP-FX article on page 50 of this issue. 


Last season could not be called a good one for science 
fiction TV by any stretch of the imagination. New shows 
fell by the wayside with sickening regularity and several 
established shows had their troubles as well. Gone forever 
are the short-lived Fantastic Journey and Tales of the 
Unexpected. Space:1999 also got lost in the video shuffle 
although its re-runs are expected to continue locally via 
syndication. For a while, it looked like the $6 Million Man 
would be the only SF survivor of the ratings war. There 
now is hope, however, that the 77-78 season will be 
something of a banner year for science fiction on the tube. 

Starting this fall, the three networks will be presenting 
such hour-long fare as The $6 Million Man, Man From 
Atlantis, Logan's Run, Wonder Woman and The Bionic 
Woman. The fact that The Bionic Woman made the 
schedule at all is considered a minor miracle in the TV 
industry. There was an uneasy week earlier this spring when 
it was learned that ABC had cancelled the bionic lass. It 
was a move that startled everyone, including the show's 
hundreds of thousands of fans. 

A spokesman at ABC bantered with STARLOG: 
"They're saying that Lindsay's batteries just ran down. Her 
ratings aren't what they used to be." True, but Bionic 's 
ratings were still good enough to keep it in the top twenty. 
"That's not enough to satisfy ABC now," the exec went 
on. "Now that we're the number one network. She was 
barely pulling a 35 share of the audience. I'll tell you, 
though, one of the other networks would be crazy not to 
pick her up. A 35 share would be terrific for, let's say, 
CBS." Much to everyone's relief, one week after being 
dumped by ABC, The Bionic Woman was snared by NBC. 
The network that scuttled Star Trek for insufficient ratings 
was finally making a commitment to science fiction; not 
only via the already popular Bionic Woman but with the 
considerably riskier Man From Atlantis. NBC put Man 
From Atlantis through the same rigorous testing procedure 
that ABC once inflicted on The $6 Million Man. Before 
buying the finished series on a regular basis, the network 
ordered three made-for-TV movies; each serving as a pilot 
film, of sorts. The first film garnered a 46 share of the 
audience and NBC was sold. 

And talk about extended trial runs ! The producers of 
Wonder Woman had to bite their nails through a series of 
movie-length specials and hour-long episodes used to plug 
gaps in the ABC schedule for 76-77, only to be told later 
that ABC didn't really want the show around this fall. 
Luckily, CBS did and Friday night this fall will be SF night 
on that network, beginning with Wonder Woman at 8:00 
and followed by Logan's Run at 9:00. Logan was bought 
by the network before a single pilot episode was aired. This 
serialized version of the feature film is produced by Ivan 

Goff and Ben Roberts (who brought the world Mannix) and 
stars Gregory Harrison, Heather Menzies, Donald Moffat 
and Randy Powell. 

The network trade-offs of SF shows will affect the 
futures of The $6 Million Man and The Bionic Woman in a 
rather strange way. Since The Bionic Woman is now on a 
rival network, Steve and Jaime will henceforth be 
permanently separated, never to guest on each other's 
shows. As for Oscar Goldman (Richard Anderson) — in an 
unprecedented move, the networks have announced that he 
will still be appearing on both shows. 

Miraculously enough, none of the forthcoming science- 
fiction series will be competing directly with each other. 
The Man From Atlantis, Tuesday at 8:00, will be making 
waves opposite the popular Happy Days-Laverne and 
Shirley combo and the new CBS drama, The Fitzpatricks . 
Wonder Woman's competition will be Donny and Marie 
and the pairing of the revamped Sanford Arms (Sanford 
and Son minus Sanford and son) and the rejuvenated Chico 
and the Man. 

The Bionic Woman will replace Emergency (which will 
show up as an occasional movie special) on Saturday at 
8:00, opposite Fish and Operation Petticoat (a submarine 
sitcom) on ABC, and Bob Newhart and We've Got Each 
Other on CBS. The $6 Million Man will be bucking 
laughter on Sundays at 8:00, combating Rhoda and On Our 
Own on CBS and CPO Sharkey and Off the Wall on NBC. 

For all practical purposes, comedy will be the enemy next 
season. According to ABC exec Fred Silverman, drama, 
adventure, documentary, crime and SF must make way for 
the higher rated comedy realm. He's betting his network's 
supremacy on it. With the few exceptions of Starsky and 
Hutch, Baretta and Charlie's Angels, practically every ABC 
show this fall will be a comedy. 

One encouraging sign for the new season is the inclusion 
of several SF "specials" in the 77-78 lineup. NBC is 
working on a full-length animated version of The Hobbit 
and mini-series of Huxley's Brave New World and 
Bradbury's Martian Chronicles are being planned as well. 
1984 will also make an appearance as a special TV-movie 
and Stranger In a Strange Land is actively being considered 
a possible candidate for TV production. And, in case there 
are any gaps to be filled in the fall schedule, ABC still has 
Future Cop in the wings and NBC has Quark ready. 
Created by the people who brought the world Get Smart, 
Quark is a comedy concerning the exploits of an outerspace 
sanitation man (Richard Benjamin) who zips through the 
galaxy in his scow ala Kirk in the Enterprise. 

No matter what the final outcome, the Fall 77 line-up has 
more science-fiction shows at the starting gate than ever 
before. And that's the most hopeful sign of all. 



Bantam Books has published Frank Frazetta, Book Two, 
a large format, paperback collection of 35 full-color and 8 
pen-and-ink illustrations. Edited and with an introduction 
by Betty Ballantine, the edition sells for $7.95. Included in 
the collection are reproductions of the paintings used in the 
1977 Frank Frazetta Calendar; several color illustrations for 
Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter of Mars and Carson of 
Venus series; Tarzan, Lord of the Rings, and Conan. This 
edition comes two years after Bantam published The 
Fantastic Art of Frank Frazetta, I — which has become the 
largest seller in their artbook line, with over 200,000 copies 
in print. Frazetta, one of the giants Of the fantasy-art 
world, started his career doing comic strips and books in 
the 1950s. Frazetta says that he turned "pro" at the age of 16, 
after entering a painting in a scholastic art competition and 
getting disqualified on the grounds that "I must have had 
professional help with it." The 48-year-old artist works 
from his home in East Stroudsburg, Pa., conceiving and 
executing his paintings without benefit of either models or 
photographs. Frazetta explains, "I just pretend I'm there; 
that the character is coming right at me." 


Ben Bova's Millennium, published by Del Rey Books, is 
an SF thriller filled with political intrigue in the year 1999. 
With Earth on the brink of nuclear annihilation, Russian 
and American lunar colonists must join forces against their 
home planet (Earth) in a desperate attempt to save man 
from himself. Originally written in the early 1950's, Ben 
Bova accurately predicted the space race between the U.S. 
and Russia. It was suppressed by publishers at that time, 
who feared an unfavorable reaction from the late Senator 
Joseph McCarthy. In the 1960's, Bova worked with 
scientists at a research laboratory in Massachusetts where 
the fundamental breakthroughs that produced high-powered 
lasers were made. This updated version of Millenium makes 
use of Mr. Bova's varied technical background and shows 

how laser weaponry employed in a space defense effort may. 
affect world politics. 


Terror, the state of violent dread, is the theme and 
substance of Vic Ghidalia's anthology Feast of Fear from 
Manor Books ($1.25). Combining science fiction with the 
macabre, Mr. Ghidalia's new offering once more boasts the 
work of the giants in the genre of gooseflesh: Robert E. 
Howard, H.P. Lovecraft, August Derleth, Fritz Leiber, 
Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, Cornell Woolrich and F. 
Marion Crawford. Robert E. Howard is represented with 
the major premiere appearance of "The Cobra in the 
Dream" in which John Murken crosses the line from reality 
into nightmare and discovers to his horror that there is no 
turning back. Fritz Leiber explores the domain of a mad 
scientist who brings back a grisly Thing from the tomb to 
inflict its fearsome will in "The Dead Man." A story set 
forth by H.P. Lovecraft and developed by August Derleth 
as "The Dark Brotherhood" unravels the sinister motive of 
a strange cult who walk the streets of Providence by night 
in the guise of Edgar Allen Poe. From the avenues of 
Providence, Cornell Woolrich guides us through the byways 
of New Orleans where his "Music from the Dark" leads to 
the curse of slow death for a jazz musician. A 
honeymooning couple lost in a storm in Henry Kuttner's 
"Masquerade" seeks refuge in what appears to be a 
deserted lunatic asylum — which is neither deserted nor a 
lunatic asylum, but far more terrifying. What grim secret 
draws the poet to the beautiful figure in Robert Bloch's 


Television producer Gerry Anderson recently spent an 
afternoon in his studio office outside London, chatting with 
STARLOG about his career in science fiction, his plans for 
the future and the era of Space: 1999, for the upcoming 
special STARLOG Fall TV issue. During the course of the 
interview, Anderson spoke glowingly of the efforts of 
certain STARLOG readers who have participated in the 
"Save Space: 1999" campaign. "The fans wrote to ABC 
television," Anderson revealed. "They then wrote to me 
saying that they had received a sympathetic hearing from 
the network. ABC, in turn, contacted me. It would be 

fitting to say that, as a result of the fans' endeavors, I am 
now in constant touch with ABC-TV. That is the power of 
STARLOG." Anderson added a few words of helpful 
advice for his stalwart supporters. "There's a great deal of 
energy being spent by fans writing to me, to their local 
stations and to ITC. Their campaign seems to be somewhat 
fragmented. I believe it will be extremely difficult to get 
Space: 1999 going again because I simply do not own the 
rights. But if the American fans want a NEW science 
fiction show . . . and I'm not suggesting any protest ... I 
think that by sending their letters to the American networks 
(ABC, NBC, CBS) they can certainly prove that there is a 
need for such shows." The complete interview with Gerry 
Anderson, including his views of Spaced999, Thunderbirds 
and Supercar, will appear in the next issue of STARLOG. 



The principal crew 
members of the ENTER- 
PRISE pose for a "family 
portrait" photographed 
by Mr. Spock. 

Spock, as a boy, atop 
I'Chaya, his pet Sehlat, 
fighting a Vulcan moun- 
tain lion. (From Yester- 
year, the most popular 
animated episode) 


escapes the fiery effects 

of exploding planet. 


The Time Trap. Every 

this graveyard of lost 
is also there, struggling 
to get out. 

Spock questions Aleek- 
Om, an Aurelian, before 
the Guardian of Forever. 
(A very rare scene from 

A very rare angle of the 


Aqua Shuttle blasts 

from its stern. 



engages a Klingon ship 

in battle. 


A huge derelict space- 
ship, pod like, surrounds 
the ENTERPRISE as it 
drifts through a special 
passage. (From Beyond 
the Farthest Star) 

A gigantic red Sursnake 
is captured in nets by 
the Aquans. Beautiful 
underwater, innerspace 
scene. (The Ambergris 




Check the numbers and quantities below of the "eels" you want. 
Each "eel" is $20.00 plus S1.50 for postage and handling. Mail 
immediately, enclosing a total of $21.50foreac/7 "eel," to: 


475 Park Avenue South 8th FloorSuite New York, N.Y. 10016 
(Please send cash, check or money order, no C.O.D.'s) 











Total No. Ordered 

Amount Enc 

Name _ 




(Allow 30 days for delivery) 


attacked by Kukulkan's 

ship, which has taken 

on the image of a 

gigantic Aztec serpent. 


By special arrangement with Filmation Studios, producers of 
the STAR TREK animated TV series, STARLOG now makes avail- 
able the authentic, hand-painted "ceis" as used in the production 
of the award winning show. 

"Cels" are paintings on celluloid from drawings created by the 
studio artists. 

Each "eel" comes to you mounted on a 14"x 18" mat folder, 
overlayed on a beautiful multi-colored background scene from the 



When the edition of each is sold out, 

no more of that scene will be produced. 

Each is numbered and authenticated from the studio. You will 
become a registered owner and advised of future offerings from 
the studio and have the FIRST RIGHT to purchase new editions. 

Money back guarantee if not completely satisfied. We will offer 
you a substitute if the edition is sold out, or refund your money at 
your option. nn it Mnw; 

Remember— these are LIMITED 


Orders will be filled on a FIRST COME basis. 


:■■ .SI". /. 

,-:■;■: .:.-."■ •.■■. 



According to the latest information from Twentieth 
Century-Fox, Survival Run (originally Damnation Alley) 
will definitely be released in December of this year. Last 
issue's Log Entries (page 10) featured a plot synopsis of the 
film plus information on the stars. It has become apparent, 
however, that one of the big stars of the movie was 
pictured but not mentioned. The scene-stealing star in 
question is not a person but a specially constructed 
masterpiece of futuristic vehicular design called The Land 
Master. Perhaps the largest functioning vehicle built 
specifically for use in a motion picture, The Land Master 
was designed by Academy Award-winning production 
designer Preston Ames and Dean Jeffries of Jeffries 

; '• 

Automotive Styling. It weighs 21,800 pounds; it's 35 feet 
long and over 12 feet tall. It is powered by a 391 Ford 
Truck Industrial Engine with special components and has 
front and rear drive. The vehicle's 12 wheels, in 4 triangle- 
shaped clusters of 3 wheels each, make it capable of 
traversing the most difficult of terrains. The wheels are 
gear-driven by 7 gears, using a star-gear design. One of the 
most unusual and spectacular features of The Land Master 
is its jointed steering mechanism. Divided into a front and 
rear unit, it turns from its midsection using two hydraulic 
cylinders. More specifically, when it rounds a corner it does 
so almost in the shape of an "L." On uneven ground, the 
two units roll and twist independently, This incredible 
vehicle performed like a true star. It covered desert and 
mountain territory with ease and even floated on a lake in 

' ' -'■"i -'.-. 



■ * 












Complete with Druid ruins, witches, demons, assorted 
succubi, arcane spells, mystic seals and black magic, Gene 
Roddenberry's Spectre premiered on NBC on Saturday, 
May 21. Robert Culp and Gig Young were excellent as a 
modern American version of that classic team of 
criminologists, Sherlock Holmes and Dr, Watson. Culp 
portrayed William Sebastian, who differs from Holmes in 
that his specialty is crimes thakdeal with the occult. Gig 
Young was thoroughly convincing as Dr. "Ham" 
Hamilton, Sebastian's partner and companion. In the 
interim since their last adventure, Ham, it seems had 
become an alcoholic. Sebastian's housekeeper, (Majel 
Barrett) remedied that situation within moments after the 
doctor stepped into the house. She cut a lock from his hair 
and proceeded to cast a spell on him; Ham can no longer 
drink alcoholic beverages. The production was filled with 
small, clever touches like that, as well as its share of grand 
surprises. The plot revolved around the accidental release of 
an ancient demon — Asmodeus, the Prince of Lechery — and 
its possession of the occupants of Cyon House, in London. 
Although Sebastian manages to defeat the demon, he is not 
completely vanquished. This leaves the door open for a 
possible series with Asmodeus in the role of arch-villain, 
similar to the role Dr. Moriarity played in the adventures of 

(Continued from page 12) 

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Sherlock Holmes. And there is talk afoot about Spectre 
being picked up for a prime-time series: we'll know more 
about that in the fall. The only disappointment in the show 
was the fact that American audiences only got to see the 

edited-down version. Spectre is being released as a full 
feature movie outside of the United States. Perhaps some 
pressure on the network from Gene's fans will work to 
bring about an unedited showing here. 


Currently showing throughout the country is AIP's latest 
extravaganza, The Island of Dr. Moreau, adapted from the 
classic novel by H.G. Wells. Although this Gothic horror 
tale takes place in 1911, Moreau's' investigations have the 
timeliness of today's banner headlines. The good doctor is 
involved in DNA experimentation, trying to "isolate the 
chromosomes which determine the shape of all living 
things." His work leads to the transformation of jungle 
animals into quasi-humans, called humanimals™. The task 
of creating these realistic half-men was accomplished by the 
award-winning team of John Chambers and Dan Striepeke, 
best-known for their work on the Planet of the Apes , 

movies. That they succeeded in accomplishing the desired 
state of realism was evidenced by the fact that the 
actors— in make-up— had to be introduced to the real 
animals in easy stages. The animals were accustomed to 
working with humans or other animals but were more than 
a bit skittish about working with these strange admixtures 
of the two. The well-trained animal actors used in the film 
are from the Enchanted Village in Buena Park, California, 
owned and operated by Ralph and Toni Heifer. (Many of 
them starred on the TV series Daktari, which was actually 
written about Ralph Heifer, who is also a world-famous 
animal behaviorist.) All of the film's stars went down to the 
Enchanted Village so that they could learn to work safely 
with the animals. The actors who portray the 
humanimals™— all top Hollywood stuntmen— found that 
they practically had to live with the real animal species they 
represented in order to accurately portray them on the 
screen. The jungle cats and other exotic animals were 
transported from California to St. Croix (where the movie 
was filmed) by trailer and boat at a total cost of $70,000. 
AIP will follow this jungle drama with an insect horror 
flick, Empire of the Ants. Also adapted from an H.G. 
Wells story, Ants is slated for a late-summer release. 






Sayer of the Law ... RICHARD BASEHART 


Boarman JOHN L. 

Bullman BOB OZMAN 






Executive Producers SAMUEL Z. ARKOFF 




Director DON TAYLOR 

Screenplay by . . . JOHN HERMAN SHANER 

Based on the Novel by H.G. WELLS 


Production Designer . . PHILLIP JEFFERIES 


Wardrobe Designer . . RICHARD LA MOTTE 
Make-up Supervisors . . JOHN CHAMBERS 


Make-up Artists . . ED BUTTERWORTH and 


Animal Supervisor RALPH HELFER 



The starloc Photo Guidebook to 

and Television 


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Includes the ships from "Star Trek," "Space: 1999," 

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old TV shows, "unknown" films ... & many more! 

A Photo Treasury You'll. Save and Enjoy for Years! 

A Fantastic Collector's Item — A Wonderful Gift! 

Not Available on Newsstands . . . Sold Only Through 
This Magazine and in Certain Quality Bookstores 

This is i the First Edition of a NEW series of quality Photo Guidebooks 

Published by STARLOG, "the magazine of the future." Every copy 

guaranteed perfect. 


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(Bookstores and dealers 
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SfJLir "oSSfE?? 1° cut up th,s ma 9az«ne, just send your name and 
address to STARLOG (above), include your payment, and mark the 
number of copies you want in a circle. This order form is not necessary' 

Logan and Jessica encounter a city run by robots. They 
have preserved the long-dead remains of their masters. 


The eagerly-awaited Logan 's Run pilot episode which will air 
on CBS this fall may surprise and confuse devotees of the 
film. Scriptwriters William F. Nolan and Saul David have 
backed up the action to recap the situation — and changed the 
last half of the movie. The biggest difference is that the 
inhabitants of the Dome City no longer have "life-clocks" on 
the palms of their hands; the concept has been abandoned. 
(Perhaps because the rest of the series is to take place outside 
of the City, thus making the life-clocks irrelevant.) This, of 
course, means that the entire sequence of events that origin- 
ally caused Logan to run has been drastically altered. He is 
shown to be the only Sandman with scruples. He questions 

Francis about why runners have to be terminated and whether 
or not renewal is just a lie as they witness a group at the ritual 
of Carousel. (Stock footage from the film is used here to good 
advantage.) In a simplified (and expurgated) version of their 
original encounter, Logan meets Jessica as she is attempting 
to help a runner. She knows who he is, which takes him by 
surprise. She quickly presses her advantage and explains to 
him about Sanctuary and the cruel lie behind renewal. But 
another Sandman arrives and terminates the runner; he in 
turn is zapped by Logan. Since this means that he will now be 
hunted by the other Sandmen, Logan decides to go with 
Jessica and search for Sanctuary. Jessica uses her Ankh to 
open a door to the outside. They leave the City but Francis 
and several other Sandmen follow them. Their flight takes 
them to the ruins of Washington, D.C., where they find a 
hovercraft that is powered by light energy. Logan quickly 
figures out how to operate it and they travel to the Mountain 
City. This beautiful enclave is peopled by robots — their 
human masters and builders are all dead. They escape from 
this city with the help of Rem, the "Ultimate computer in 
human form," just as the pursuing group of Sandmen is 
captured by the robots. Logan, Jessica and Rem set off in the 
hovercraft to find Sanctuary and the stage is set for the rest of 
the series. The only element that really doesn't work is the 
monomaniacal pursuit of Logan by Francis. The Sandman 
has found the air breathable, the water fresh, and other 
cities — other pockets of civilization still functioning. There is 
no longer a reason to believe the Dome City computers or to 
try to terminate his former friend. But this is just the pilot epi- 
sode; we'll have to wait and see how Francis is handled as the 
series progresses. All in all, Logan's Run has the potential to 
be an exciting, superior science-fiction show. It may surprise 
those of you who saw the feature film, but we don't think 
you'll be disappointed. 


Three members of the STARLOG editorial staff recently 
appeared at the Creation Con in New York City in a panel 
session moderated by Jim Burns. The session, titled "The 
World of STARLOG," afforded an opportunity for attendees 
to question the staff, discuss upcoming magazine features, 

and generally hear some behind-the-scenes stories about 
publishing a professional newsstand magazine. STARLOG is 
flattered and gratified by such requests and will be happy to 
work out arrangements for conventions held in the New York 
area — our production schedule permitting. We think this is an 
unusual convention activity that will add entertainment and 
information to any program. To work out details (well in 
advance, please) contact the editor. 


With most of the movie industry's attention devoted to 
the new science fiction epics Close Encounters and 
Star Wars, a handful of smaller budget SF films are 
actively being ignored. Such was was not the case at the 
Cannes Film Festival held earlier this summer in France, 
where distributors from all over the world tried to sell their 
wares on the global' market. Among the hundreds of films 
offer red; either completed or in production, were dozens of 
science-fiction movies. Here's a smattering of what's to 
come in the not-too-distant future from the international 
movie front. From Italy: Holocaust 2000 (a nuclear power 
plant' disaster featuring Kirk Douglas and Simon Ward), 
Yeti (Bigfoot), Kong Island,and The Crystal Man with John 
Phillip Law. From Canada: Alien Encounter (with Robert 
Vaughn and Christopher Lee). From Mexico: King of 
Gorillas (yet another Kong stew). From Germany: Missile 
X. From Japan: The Legend of Dinosaurs and Monster 
Birds. From France: Vampirella (to be directed by Gordon 
Hessler), Lifespan (a tale of a prolonged-life culture) and 
Tore (a sword-and-sorcery epic by Paul Morrisey). From 
Spain: The Fabulous Journey To The Centre Of The Earth 
(with Kevin More). From Hong Kong: The Rats (based 
upon a novel by James Herbert) and The H-Bomb (starring 

Christopher Mitchum and Olivia Hussey). The United States 
was represented by a ton of low-budget SF melodramas, 
including: The Late Great Planet Earth (based upon the 
Hal Lindsey novel), Cats (from the producers of this year's 
Dogs), Martin (George-Night Of The Living Dead- 
Romero's next), Panic (a city that is poisoned in every 
ecological way), Blue Sunshine (a murder-inducing 
hallucinogenic drug concocted by the producers of Squirm), 
Return From Witch Mountain (Disney's alien kids, led by 
Fantastic Journey's Ike Eisenmahh,are back — this time 
paired with Bette Davis), Gift From a Red Planet (with 
Ralph Meeker), End Of The World (starring Christopher 
Lee), Mati (a story of timeless evil directed by and starring 
Telly Savalas), The Crater Lake Monster (there's a dinosaur 
in the swamp filmed in Fantamation), The Further 
Adventures of Flesh Gordon, The Meatcleaver Massacre (a 
fellow dabbles in the black arts to avenge the title event, 
hosted by Chris Lee), The Far Side of Forever, The 
Kingdom of the Spiders (with William Shatner, and not to 
be confused with Bert Gordon's Empire of the Ants, which 
is H.G. Wells . . . sort of), Cathy's Curse (a semi-K/7/age of 
the Damned set-up), Rabid ("One minute they're normal, 
the next they're rabid!"), The Devil's Triangle, and last, and 
certainly least, Cinderella 2000, an X-rated SF spoof with 
the dubious honor of featuring a character named Rosco 
the Robot. 



Special Offe r to STA R LOG Readers 
from #*fBrW99^ Rockets 

Just imagine . . . you can enjoy the thrill of controlling your own 
field launch and recovery operation and at the same time you will 
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Skill level: Beginner to Intermediate 


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(Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for arrival of shipment.) 


Director Steven Spielberg has finally broken his code of 
silence regarding his forthcoming film, Close Encounters Of 
The Third Kind. Shrouded in secrecy since its inception, 
Close Encounters has remained somewhat of an enigma to 
the world at large. Its location sites in Mobile, Ala. and 
Gillete, Wyoming were closed to the public, security guards 
gave the heave-ho to any visitor not wearing a designated 
type of identification badge and all those involved with the 
movie took a vow of silence — prohibiting them from 
discussing the film even after production was completed. In 
a recent interview with»the New York Times, Spielberg 
revealed: "That was my idea. I have 350 special effects in 
the film and I wanted to prevent imitations and exact 
duplications. I was afraid that someone would try to get a 
film out like it before mine gets out. And it's a very simple 

story — about one man's refusal to be told what not to 
believe — and I didn't want a lot of pre-publicity with 
synopses of the plot and how the characters relate to each 
other." Spielberg refused to detail the special effects used, 
although he admitted there was an extensive presence of 
miniatures on the set and the ending was termed "a massive 
event ending" which lasts for the final half hour of the 
film. The director revealed that he has wanted to direct a 
film on UFO's since his childhood, inspired by his father's 
collection of Galaxy science-fiction magazines. When 
pressed by the reporter as to the plot of his current UFO 
feature, he would only comment: "It's critical of certain 
methods the Air Force has used in the past in debriefing the 
country about UFO's, and critical of all the debunking that 
goes on. But the Air Force and the Government come off 
as well as those who believe in UFO's. Both are shown to 
be intelligent beings with the best interests of the country at 
heart." Furthermore, he stated that Close Encounters has a 
"very positive" ending, "full of hope." In spite of the 
subject matter of the film and the close association with 
technical advisor Dr. J. Allen Hynek of Northwestern 
University, Spielberg himself does not believe in UFO's 
outright. "I still have to see something to believe it," he 
said. "But if an announcement were made today that 
extraterrestrials had made contact with us ... it wouldn't 
stun me." As for the philosophical clout of the movie, the 
director commented, "It's strictly an entertainment film. 
I'm not out to educate the country or enlighten people, or 
make them reason any differently, but I would like, them to 
look up in the sky a little differently, with a little more 
curiosity and open mindedness." Spielberg is currently 
editing Close Encounters Of The Third Kind down to a 
suitable running time for its Christmas release later this 


When William Shatner went on tour this past season, 
visiting college campuses with his one-man show, he was 
not alone. Not only were these evenings shared with 
thousands of enthusiastic Star Trek, science-fiction, and 
Shatner fans but also, apparently, there were professional 
recording engineers present. The best moments from the 
tour have been turned into a new 2-record album, dressed 
up with some jazzy graphics, exclusive photos, and an 
autographed poster of the man himself. The program starts 
with several exciting excerpts from Shakespeare, Rostand 
and H.G. Well:, dramatically read and tracing the 
development of science fiction through the ages. The climax 
features Shatner's lively, humorous banter with the 
audience as he fields questions on his historic series and 
entertains with a rare combination of wit and intelligence. 
The album is titled William Shatner Live and is scheduled 
for release in late June. 


Friday, August 5th is the final closing day for all listings 
that will appear in STARLOG's Science Fiction 
Merchandise Guide. The Guide will be inserted into the No. 
10 issue of STARLOG (on sale October 18th .. . two 
months before Christmas) and is planned as the most 
comprehensive listing of SF and movie shops, bookstores, 
mail-order suppliers, manufacturers, and dealers ever 
assembled. It will be seen and saved by thousands of 
science -fiction fans and is a supreme opportunity for 

advertising your product(s) to a very interested public or for 
making business contacts in the field. For complete 
information, rush your name, address and phone number 

STARLOG Magazine 

SF Merchandise Guide 

475 Park Ave. South 

8th Floor Suite 

New York, N.Y. 10016 


There will be a new underwater movie, Sea Trench, based 
on the novel by Martin (Marooned, Cyborg) Caidin. This 
Howard G. Minsky production concerns an underwater 

civilization and is scheduled for release in '78 . . . 
Production on The Micronauts was temporarily stalled due 
to some script problems. Producer Harry Salzman says that 

(Continued on page 30) 





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created for the new release of this classic SF thriller. 

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Star Trek Fantasy" 

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Original illustration by famed SF artist Ken Barr, 
featuring the main crew of the Enterprise surrounded 
by a fantasmagoria of images from various episodes. 

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Strangely symbolic, this publicity still evokes the mood of The Fly. 


An Insect 

That Turned Into 

A Gem 

"So it was. . . with The Fly, a man made into a monster; 

his sadness was that he could not be rescued back into 

the race Fate had taken him away from, is that not the 

ultimate fear of every man, that the end of life. . . may be 

separation from his identity with Man(kind)?" 

—Vincent Price 

From his introduction to The Ghouls, edited by Peter Maining. 


The 1950's was a decade 
filled with small-scale and grand cine- 
matic science fiction. Even though 
several major productions {Destination 
Moon, Forbidden Planet) brought 
legitimacy to the field, many of the 
limited budget "B" movies were 
laughed at by the critics and scorned by 
adult audiences. In general, big budgets 
were reserved for more "mainstream" 
projects that were likely to return big 
bucks at the box offices. Yet one modest 
SF/horror film (made for an equally 
modest $350,000) grossed over three 
million dollars in its first few years. It 
was called The Fly. 

That this film was intended to be a 
sleeper, there can be little doubt. Aside 
from the constricting budget (though 
they did manage both color and Cine- 
mascope), there were also no "draw" 
stars in the cast. Even Vincent Price was 
only beginning to emerge into the public 
spotlight— despite the fact that he had 
been making films fairly regularly for 
twenty years previous to The Fly. In all 
probability, the studio expected the film 
to go out, make a quick but humble take 
at countless small movie houses and 
drive-ins around the nation, and retire 
to a quiet, dusty corner of some storage 
facility on the lot. 

It was, after all, just a "B" film. A 
major studio like 20th Century-Fox, 
which released The Fly, can hardly keep 
count of how many such low-budget 
pictures it produces. It isn't that SF 
"B's" are either good or bad by any 
hard-and-fast generalizations — they just 
don't create a stir. They go out, are en- 
joyed by their devotees and ignored or 
misunderstood by the critics, and return 
uneventfully. They are like rocks in a 
desert. Yet, if one examines those rocks 
closely, one will find an occasional, 
glistening diamond. Other diamonds 
found in this same rock bed have in- 
cluded The Thing, Invasion of the Body 
Snatchers and The Incredible Shrinking 
Man. They are unpretentious gems of 
fantasy and imagination that touch on 
some of the deeper themes of major dra- 
matic films, sometimes on a more per- 
sonal or humanistic level than those 
slicker productions. 

On the surface, The Fly seemed to be 
yet another borderline science -fic- 
tion/horror film, merely adding to the 
seemingly endless body of Bug-Eyed 
Monsters that accumulated during the 
50s. These usually demonstrated that 
humanity as a whole is rather single- 
mindedly xenophobic* But The Fly's 
thematic structure ran . deeper than 

Briefly, the film's story deals with 

* Xenophobia: fear and hatred of anything strange 
and/ or foreign. 


The plate is teleported intact but the 
printing has been reversed. Crestfallen, 
David Hedison as Andre Delambre resolves 
to continue his experiments, regardless. 

Helen and Andre share the suspense of 
his experiments. (Note the Amrac board 
in the background which previously ap- 
peared in M.G.M.'s The Invisible Boy.) 

Above: Andre will not let his wife see him 
after the accident. He communicates from be- 
hind the locked door via typewritten notes. 
Right: This famous publicity still was us- 
ually captioned: "Vincent Price & Friend." 

Andre Delambre (David Hedison), a 
scientist who is experimenting with the 
teleportation of matter. His method is a 
crude prototype of the Star Trek 
transporter system, involving breaking 
down atomic structure and transferring 
the disassembled particles by a "send- 
ing" mechanism and reassembling the 
disintegrated form in another chamber. 
The two chambers are positioned about 
ten yards apart in Andre's basement 
laboratory in Montreal, Canada. 

Andre has succeeded in transferring 
matter, but only inanimate matter. Even 
then, not all went smoothly. His wife, 
Helene (Patricia Owens), notices at one 
point that the printing on the back of a 

teleported plate is reversed. 

But Andre's true ambition and obses- 
sion is the molecular transference of liv- 
ing matter. And, despite the ques- 
tionability of his previous successes, he 
is determined to go ahead and try a 
transfer with his cat. The cat disinte- 
grates, but fails to reintegrate. He then 
adjusts the projection device on the con- 
verter and tries again. This time he suc- 
ceeds. Now he feels ready for the grand 
experiment — the teleportation of a 
human being. Andre selects himself as 
the first "guinea pig." 

Andre makes his preparations and 
then begins. What he doesn't notice is 
that a small fly has entered the disinte- 

Above: Cloaked from his wife's eyes, Andre 
seeks to unmix himself from the fly. The 
tiny insect with Andre's head and arms es- 
capes from the laboratory and with it his 
chances of regaining his human form. 

gration chamber with him. When they 
are reintegrated, their atoms are mixed. 
Andre retains his body, but with a 
grossly enlarged fly's head and claw 
grafted on. In the same manner, 
Andre's head and hand are now part of 
the tiny fly. In a typed message to 
Helene (one of many Andre uses as his 
sole form of communication), he states 
"Now my only hope is to find the fly. I 
have to go through the disintegrator 
again and pray our atoms will un-mix. 
If you can't find it, I'll have to destroy 

As the film progresses, Andre 
becomes more and more dehumanized, 
becoming as much a monster within as 


Inch by inch, the hydraulic press slowly 
descends to destroy scientist Andre Del- 
ambre, victim of his own impetuosity. 
Helen, out of pity, assists in the suicide. 

To her horror, Helen discovers Andre's 
claw hand has slipped from the press, now 
she must raise it, position the arm, and 
try to complete her husband's execution. 

Vincent Price soothes Andre's son by tel- 
ling him that his father was a great ex- 
plorer of the unknown who had the courage 
to accept the risks of such exploration. 


he is without, from the weight of 
despondency which presses upon him. 
This is most poignantly depicted in a 
scene in which a wretched Andre, cover- 
ing his fly's head with a cloth, bends 
over a bowl of milk and slurps it up.. 
Andre and the audience both realize that 
he has gambled his humanity — and lost 

The fly is eventually found in the 
house, only to be lost again as it 
manages to flee through an open win- 
dow into the garden. All hope is shat- 
tered in that moment. Andre pitiably 
begs Helene to destroy him. The method 
of his "execution" is both outlandish 
and gratuitously sadistic, but it provides 
a satisfying symbology. Andre places 
his head and claw under a hydraulic 
press which then crushes them, as if by 
so destroying the inhuman anatomy, 
Andre the man might miraculously 
reappear. Helene's own personal horror 
in this scene is beautifully communi- 
cated to the audience when Andre's claw 
slips down before the press can crush it. 
Helene is forced to raise the press, put 
the claw back under and try again. 

This "purging of the monster" is 
repeated in the final chilling scene. The 
fly is found one last time, trapped in a 
spider's web as the predatory insect 
moves menacingly towards it. We see 
Andre's tiny head covered with thin, 
silky webbing as he screams his plea for 
help in a high-pitched, wavering voice. 
Inspector Charas, who has been investi- 
gating the case, becomes so unnerved 
that he picks up a large rock and crushes 
both the fly and the spider. Purge. As 
always in SF films dealing with science 
gone haywire, it is better that the public- 
at-large NEVER KNOW. 

The theme that most people see in The 
Fly is one of the most traditional in 
science-fiction history. Even prior to the 
Industrial Revolution, opponents of 
scientific experimentation were using 
their talents to dramatize to the public 
the fear we should feel regarding ex- 
plorations into unknown areas. Man- 
kind, they said, is nothing more than 
naive children tampering with and try- 
ing to understand the forces of gods. 
It's the old "Man wasn't meant to fly" 
theme, which has become a total bore to 
many of us but which still makes certain 
eyes light up. 

In The Fly, however, Andre's sin was 
not his insatiable curiosity, but his fool- 
hardy impatience — his lack of careful, 
time-consuming, step-by-step pro- 
cedure. Any scientist who uses himself 
as a guinea pig in an unproved experi- 
ment is just plain foolish — not because 
of his scientific daring but because of 
his lack of scientific precautions. Never- 
theless, the theme was taken to be "Man 
wasn't meant to teleport," at least by 
many of the critics who delight in such 
anti-science themes. As a result, the film 

July, 1958: The Fly premieres at 
the Rialto Theatre in London. 


THE FLY: A 20th Century-Fox Production 
and release. 1958. Color. 94 minutes. Film- 
ed in Cinemascope. Directed by Kurt 
Neumann. Screenplay by James Clavell, 
based on the novelette The Fly by George 
Langelaan. Music by Paul Sawtell. Art 
Directors, Lyie R. Wheeler and Theobold 
Holsopple. Set Directors, Walter M. Scott 
and Eli Benneche. Wardrobe Designer, 
Charles LeMaire. Costumes by Adele 
Baldan. Make-up by Ben Nye and Dick 
Smith (uncredited). Assistant Director, Jack 
Gertsmann. Sound, Eugene Grossman and 
Harry M. Leonard. Special Camera Effects, 
L. B. Abbott. Camera, Karl Struss. Editor, 
Merrill G. White. Color by Deluxe. 

Andre Delambre David Hedison 

Helene Delambre .... Patricia Owens 

Francois Brandon Vincent Price 

Inspector Charas. . . Herbert Marshall 
Philip Delambre .... Charles Herbert 

Emma Kathleen Freeman 

Nurse Anderson. . . Betty Lou Gerson 

Dr. Ejoute Eugene Borden 

Gaston Torben Meyer 

Orderly Harry Carter 

Police Doctor Franz Roehm 

French Waiter Arthur Dulac 

actually started getting serious critical 

This was the first thing that alerted 
20th Century-Fox that there was 
something more here than just another 
"B" film. The Fly received strong 
critical response in the press, some hail- 
ing it as an immortal classic of imagi- 
native cinema, others condemning it as 
a repulsive sadistic film and ludicrous 
science fiction. Positive reviews were in 
the majority, but even the negative criti- 
ques had their value. At that time, a 
science-fiction film would only be men- 
tioned in passing and either given a nod- 
ded okay or accused of the crime of be- 
ing "comic book." That the critics were 
analyzing this film and arguing pro and 
con was astounding. 

The film was heavily promoted after 
the reviews were released and was so 
successful that one year later a sequel 
was made, Return of the Fly. It was a 
pointless, like-father-like-son situation; 
inoffensive, but lacking both the people 
and the thematic validity of the original. 
Not surprisingly, it never did as well. 

There are some flaws in the original 
Fly, but most of them are minor. One 
flaw which does deserve mention is 
found in too many SF films. It is 
Hollywood's portrayal of scientists. 
They are shown as withdrawn, stuffy 
and obsessed — often charging right in to 
take foolish risks on the flimsiest of 
evidence. It is not as bad in The Fly as in 
other instances because the careless 
Andre Delambre is complemented by 
the arch-conservative Francois Brandon 
(Vincent Price). 

It is interesting to note that Vincent 
Price plays a passive, mostly observer's 
role throughout the film. Yet it was this 
portrayal that is held responsible for 
placing him in the public spotlight. 

Vincent Price was not the only person 
connected with the film who went on to 
other heights afterward. David Hedison 
has done most of his work in television 
and is probably best known for his role 
as Captain of the Seaview on Voyage To 
The Bottom Of The Sea. The screen- 
writer is a now-famous historical- 
political novelist, James Clavell, author 
of King Rat, Tai Pan and, most recent- 
ly, Shogun. He wrote the screenplays 
for The Satan Bug, The Great Escape, 
and wrote and directed To Sir With 
Love. The director, Kurt Neumann, un- 
fortunately died the same year The Fly 
was released. His previous SF project 
was another "B" gem: Rocketship 

The Fly, which has today become a 
cult film, turned what might have been 
just another man-creates-monster, 
monster -eats- man, man - destroys- 
monster cliche into a powerful and 
touching cinematic tragedy. And all the 
budget, all the glossy special effects in 
the world cannot do that for a film . ir 



Science Fiction's 
Last Angry Man 

Harlan Ellison is a charismatic culture hero who 
is preceded by his reputation wherever he goes. 
His impressive literary career is often over- 
shadowed by the man himself. He is known for his 
quick wit and acid tongue, plus an uncanny ability 
to sniff out a problem and a steadfast inability to 
leave it alone. 
Noted SF author Theodore Sturgeon, in an 
introduction to Harlan's 1967 collection of short 
stories, / Have No Mouth And I Must Scream, des- 
cribed him in the following way: ". . . He is a man 
on the move and he is moving fast. He is, on these 
pages and everywhere else he goes, colorful, 
intrusive, abrasive, irritating, hilarious, illogical, 
inconsistent, unpredictable, and one hell of a 
writer." Ten years later, Harlan might well agree 

that this description is accurate, although he 
probably would change the order. 



Harlan Ellison has 
been a dominant force on the American 
literary scene— and a focal point for 
controversy— for almost two decades. 
He has spread his creative talents across 
the media, working in television, comic 
books, acting, and recording in addition 
to his 30-plus published books. In the 
process, he has amassed six Hugo and 
two Nebula Awards— the ultimate sign 
of success for anyone in the field of 
science fiction. 

Harlan had come to New York for the 
Science Fiction Writers of America's 
1977 Nebula Awards. His spoken- word 
record album, Harlan!, had been 
nominated for an award in the category 
of "Best Dramatic Presentation." But 
he was not in town to accept the award; 
he was here to announce his resignation 
from the SFWA because, as he bitterly 
said, "They talk that talk, but they 
won't walk that walk." 

He had been in Canada the night 
before as a guest on a Toronto radio 
show, Ninety Minutes Live, the Cana- 
dian equivalent to The Tonight Show. 
Having been up most of the night, 
Harlan was still in his bathrobe, en- 
gaged in an animated phone conversa- 

Harlan on writing for Hollywood: "Some producer may 
think "Well, he's work ing for us; he's got to say it 's good . 
You know— He's been bought. I'm never bought. 
On occasion I'm rented, but I'm never bought." 

Robert Bloch and Harlan in 1954. (Picture 
from the inside jacket of Blood!) Bloch 
on Ellison: "He is the only living organism 
I know whose natural habitat ishot water. 


the life and 
future times of 


from the works of 
and read by 


tion when we arrived. 

He excused himself, dressed quickly, 
and returned wearing a pair of well- 
traveled blue jeans, a red T-shirt (with a 
wonderfully menacing picture of that 
great pulp hero, The Shadow, embla- 
zoned on the chest), barefoot and pipe 
in hand. He was ready for anything. 

Well aware of his reputation, it 
seemed wise to start the conversation 
with one of his pet loves, comic books. 
Harlan opened up immediately. He was 
excited by a project he had recently done 
for one of the underground comics pub- 
lishers, Last Gasp Comix. However, 
when it was pointed out that such ex- 
posure would bring him a host of new 
followers, the gleam. in his eyes quickly 
turned into cold fire. 

Harlan is not looking for any new 
fans. "Fame is a lot more and a lot less 
than it's cracked up to be. I get two hun- 
dred letters a day. People come from all 
over the world and sleep in my car if 
they think I'm not home, just so they 
can say they slept in 'his' car." 

That kind of thing has been going on 
for years. Harlan has always had a 
volatile relationship with his fans as well 
as his detractors. "I don't want to be 
anybody's hero! That denies my 
humanity. I can never screw up and I 
screw up regularly and I want to be per- 
mitted to screw up. 

"You take a guy like (Ralph) Nader. 
He makes one mistake and all those 
people who think he's the Second Com- 
ing jump down his throat; their love has 
turned against him. I don't permit 
anybody to do that. When anybody 
comes up to me and starts talking to me 
as if they're talking to John Steinbeck, I 
immediately begin picking my nose. It's 
-one way to stay human. ..." 

As we continued talking about fans, 
Harlan turned up the fire. He com- 
plained about the constant stream of 
phone calls from fans as well as from 
cranks, but he refuses to get an unlisted 
number. "If my friends want to get 
hold of me, I'm entitled to be in the 
book. I'm also entitled to retain my 
privacy, not have people intrude. The 
loons think that because they read your 
work or they see you on the tube that all 
of a sudden you're public property. 
They feel they have the right to intrude 
on you because your work has touched 
them. Well, that's fine, that's what it's 
supposed to do. The work is theirs— not 

If this sounds like an extremely 
hostile tone to take with one's follow- 
ing, just listen to some of the hostility 
that has been thrown at Harlan. "They 
took a shot at me on the stage in Bill- 
ings, Montana. At the University of 
Kansas I was running an anti-dope trip 

and a guy jumped out of the audience 
and tried to take a poke at me." (Harlan 
has always been anti-drugs. Once, at a 
posh, Hollywood party, the hostess of- 
f erred to turn him on to some pot. He 
smiled and declined politely saying, 
"Sure, as soon as I come down." When 
you are high on life, you don't need 

"In Dayton, Ohio, I was doing my 
religion number and a Jesus freak set 
fire to her hair in the! balcony, screamed 
I was the anti-Christ doing the devil's 
work and ran out with twenty of her 
friends." Listening to Harlan, I started 
to understand the inherent power of the 
man — when he speaks, he moves peo- 
ple. Of course some people are moved 
more drastically than others. There have 
been two bomb attempts on Harlan's 
life. "They blew off the end of the L.A. 
Free Press building one time" — 
thinking that Harlan was inside. For- 
tunately, it was empty. 

But Harlan does possess that ability 
to touch people and move them to ac- 
tion. His words act as a catalyst, 
reaching into the soul and causing the 
fears and doubts that fester there to 
bubble up to the surface. Harlan of- 
ferred an explanation. 

"I used to think (what caused it was 
that) I was a gadfly; you know, a force 
for 'good' in my time. I know what it is 


now: I'm a troublemaker. I really hate 
entropy and I really despise inertia, and 
boredom makes me crazy. And there is 
such a miasma of boredom in this coun- 
try that, just to keep life interesting, I go 
around and point out some salient 
things. When I do college lectures, as 
long as I'm attacking the military- 
industrial complex and the administra- 
tion, they love it." But then he ad^s, 
"You know, if you had thirteen .an- 
nels of television programming ..nd on 
twelve of them you had deeply enriching 
and uplifting material and on the thir- 
teenth were reruns of Gilligan 's Island, 
you turkeys would be there sucking on 
that tube night and day." Harlan 
added, "They talk about ecology and 
still throw their Dr. Pepper cans in the 
bushes." Characterizing a group of peo- 
ple in this manner to their faces is likely 
to cause a bit of a stir. 

"You point this out to them and they 
say 'Who is this turkey; what the heck's 
he saying this for?' Well, I'm an old 
turkey who's paid forty-three years of 
dues and I get angry— that'? all. People 
don't like you to get above your sta- 

But then why do they come to hear 
him lecture? Harlan has the answer to 
that, too. 

"They come in and say, 'Here's this 

arrogant m f— --; let's see if he's as 

good as he's supposed to be.' And I am! 
I always give a lecture that blows people 
away. One of the reasons is that, at my 
age, I'm now ready to cop to the fact 
that I'm an elitist, and I don't think it's 
a dirty term! I know I'm better than 
ninety percent of the people I meet — 
probably a higher average than that. 
Pm smarter, quicker, cleverer. The 
dreams I dream will still be here two 
hundred years after those people are 
dust. So don't tell me that there's 
equality because I don't want equality. 
You give people freedom and they don't 
need equality: those who have the talent 
will rise and that's what it's all about." 
Obviously delighted with himself, Har- 
lan continued: "They hate that because 
they know how inferior they are. They 
want everybody drinking Dr. Pepper, 
watching the tube, getting two cars in 
the garage and a radar range and then 
they're happy. And when someone says 
No! No! There are other things in this 
life— you could own the Hearst Castle if 
you want; you can live in a chateau in 
France, be one with Marcel Proust, if 
only you will go and do it! And they 
hate it and that's the basis of it. " 

Having thus explained the enmity of 
his "fans," Harlan shifted gears and 
launched into a rapid-fire discourse on 
some of his new and recent projects. 

"I did a story treatment for Logan's 
Run and I just sold A Boy and His Dog 
for television. To NBC. We go with the 
pilot in November and the series will 
probably go in January. I'm doing two 


(From Harlan Ellison's resignation 
speech before the Science Fiction 
Writers of America, on Saturday, 
April 30th, at New York's Warwick 

"... I stand before you today 
with considerable anger. I'm up for 
the drama award this year, for a 
record produced on Alternate 
Worlds. I have no doubt in my 
mind that I will lose; I will not win 
that award. But the movies aren't 
going to win either. Logan 's Run 
and The Man Who Fell to Earth 
have both been arbitrarily put on 
the ballot and are not going to win 
it either. 'No Award' will win, my 
friends — mark my words. And it is 
the final indictment of this 
organization . . . You people do 
not seem to understand that a 
penny a word, two cents a word, 
five cents a word is not Valhalla, 
for Christ's sake. I've just made a 
deal for A Boy and His Dog (to be 
made into) a television show in 
January. In November we go with 
the pilot; they gave me $35,000 to 
write it. It's six weeks work. Thirty- 
five thousand dollars will give me 
nine months free this year to write 
whatever I please; for whatever 
market I choose. I can indulge 
myself. I'm free. Television and 
films are the Pope. They are 
patrons of the arts— they will let me 
paint my Sistine Chapel ceiling any 
way I damn choose. But this 
organization still maintains that 
crazed East Coast mythology that 
what goes on out there (in 
Hollywood) is madness. There are 
writers out there that make 
enormous sums of money and 
continue writing books that have 
enriched us all." 

pictures with William Friedkin, one of 
which is Will Eisner's the Spirit, 
and . . . ." 

Whoa! One at a time. Let's start with 
Logan's Run. The pilot has already 
been filmed .... 

"Yes, I've seen the pilot. Ivan Goff 
and Ben Roberts had an order from the 
network for the first three scripts. They 
had a number of people who had writ- 
ten those three and they didn't turn out 
well. So they (Goff and Roberts) called 
me in and they said that the people who 
had done one of the three backup scripts 
had bombed out and did I have an idea. 
Now, I have done no series television in 
damn near seven-eight years. I just got 
sick of it. All I had been doing is pilots 
and films for TV. That's the 6est-of-all- 
possible-worlds because when they 
screw those up, they just don't go on the 
• air. I get paid and I've written 
something nice and it doesn't have to 
get ruined. And that's fine. The net- 
works are patrons of the arts. They sup- 
port my work, you see, in lieu of the 
Pope. So I came in, we talked up a 
story— I came up with an idea that I and 
they liked enormously. They sent it to 
the network; the network flipped. They 
said 'Have him do it.' I did it. It's called 
'Crypt.' " 

I asked Harlan for more details. Does 
his story follow the four main char- 
acters, Logan, Jessica, Francis, and (the 
android) Rem? 

"In my story I dealt with all but Fran- 
cis. It's a people story. It's not a gim- 
mick story, it's not a flight story and it's 
not a chase story; it's not a 'we've been 
captured by the alien-eggheads' story 
either. People stories are what I write." 
Now, like the master storyteller that 
he is, Harlan sat back and became 
silent. He waited for the question he 
knew must be asked: What is the story 
about? Traces of a smile creased the 
edges of his mouth. Harlan lit his pipe, 
drew it slowly to life, and began. 

"They've got a hovercraft. They're 
traveling down the desert at the edge of 
some mountains because they've picked 
up magnetic waves from some machin- 
ery that has either been left on auto- 
matic, or there are actually people out 
there. They are looking for Sanctuary. 
They see a small complex of buildings 
out on the desert and as they near it — 
there have been seizmic trembbrs going 
on throughout this whole area — an 
earthquake hits, buckles the road and 
damages their hovercraft. They have to 
land. They go to this complex, which 
turns out to be a bio-medical complex, 
to see if they can find anything so that 
Rem can repair the craft. 

"The beams have fallen in and killed 
everyone in the place. The only one left 
is a woman DNA biologist who is dying. 
She says to them, 'We*came out here 
twenty-five years ago because, a hun- 
dred years ago, after the War, a group 

of the finest minds in the world had 
come out here and built an underground 
complex where they could live through 
the radiation and emerge later to help 
restore civilization. Unfortunately, a 
plague hit and killed everybody in the 
place — except for six people who had 
been cryogenically frozen (before the 
plague could kill them). They were the 
six finest minds. And we have been 
working on, and come up with, the anti- 
dote; the cure for the plague. Now they 
can be unfrozen and continue their 
work. But I'm dying. Here are maps. 
Please go to this complex and find these 
people. Thaw them and inject them with 
the serum so that they can live.' She 
gives them two vials of the serum. They 
say OK, we'll do it, and they go." 

(So far this sounds like a modestly in- 
triguing effort that could have been 
written by any number of "the — what 
Harlan calls— "creative typists" who 
live in California and write for televi- 
sion. But it was written by Harlan and it 
is a "people" story and it's about to get 
very interesting.) 

"When they get there they find that 
the only entrance open to them is 
through an airshaft. They start to climb 
down a ladder and a tremblor hits and 
knocks them off. They come crashing 
down and one of the vials is broken. So 
now they can only thaw out and cure 
three. But they figure that's it's OK 
because they will unfreeze three scien- 
tists who should be able to fractionate 
the serum, duplicate it, and thaw out 
and cure the other three. The only prob- 
lem is that when they get into the 
chamber, they find that the earthquake 
has smashed the machinery and all six 
are starting to thaw. The question is 
now, of the six greatest minds, who lives 
and who dies. And that's what it's all 

Not bad for a show that will only run 
about forty-seven minutes (allowing 
twelve minutes for commercials). It 
sounds like a perfectly logical extension 
of the film. 

"I tried to work with that (the film) 
and I also tried to . . .1 like dealing with 
morality plays, and with ethics. Here 
are these two young people and this an- 
droid who are suddenly in charge of 
who's going to live and who's going to 
die. And there are other complications 
in it, of course." 

Of course! (Never underestimate this 
man.) What are they? 

"It turns out that one of the people 
who's been frozen isn't who he's sup- 
posed to be. And then what begins hap- 
pening down there is that somebody 
kills one of the people. One of these six 
giant brains is % a killer, but a killer for 
very personal reasons. They want to 
stay alive. It's survival; period." 

Harlan was quite pleased with this 
story treatment. Of course, after many 
years of writing for the tube, he harbors 

"I ran into (Star Trek movie 
scriptwriter) Chris Bryant at the 
Seattle Star Trek thing. He said 
'You're Harlan Ellison and I can 
see that you're a very wise 
man — because you were smart 
enough not to get involved.' And I 
said 'Yeah. I don't envy you the 

"I was talking with an 
independent producer at Paramount 
about the Star Trek movie and he 
said 'What would you do with the 
script if you were writing it?' I told 
him 'The first thing I would do is 
kill off Kirk— in the first fifteen 
minutes — because he always held up 
the show. I'd get somebody else in 
there, younger and more 
interesting.' And he started to 
laugh. He said 'Somebody had said 
something like that, word got out 
and I had twenty-five calls from 
Shatner in the first half-hour after 
the story appeared somewhere.' I 
understand that Chris and Allen 
did, in fact, kill off Kirk 
somewhere in their script. I don't 
know for sure— but that's the 
rumor I heard." 

• • • 

(Excerpt from Harlan's resignation 
speech before the SFWA.) 

"... Fritz Lieber has been 
writing for forty years and few of 
us in this room are fit to carry his 
pencil case; there isn't one of us 
that hasn't learned from that man. 
He's one of the finest writers this 
country has ever produced. Fritz 
lives in a one-room garret in San 
Francisco. When he wants to write 
he has to put his typewriter on a 
kitchen chair and sit on the edge of 
his bed. Why? Because he has had 
the nobility and the wonder and the 
job of being a science-fiction writer 
all of his life. He's been writing for 
peanuts. That is the situation with 
many of our great giants. They 
come to the conventions and people 
look at them as though they are 
idols, and they go back and live 
lives of incredible squalor. You 
need not have that. We live in a 
mixed-media society. For good or 
for bad, television and films are 
with us, and that's where the action 
is happening. I'm not saying 'desert 
books;' books are my first 
interest— they should be your first 
interest — but the way to support the 
writing of your books is to get 
some of that money. If you don't 
get it, they're going to give it to the 

no illusions: "God knows what it'll look 
like when it gets done." 

Indeed, Harlan confessed that the 
network had asked for some changes 
but that most of them were "not 
troublesome." However, they did ask 
for one change which Harlan refused to 
make and, turning his charisma on to its 
fullest, talked them out of it. It was a 
change that brings home much of Har- 
lan's criticism about the medium and its 
stereotypical treatment of people. 

"They wanted my killer not just to be 
somebody who wanted to stay alive — 
and who is killing for that reason— they 
wanted him to be evil. By the way, three 
of the people that are frozen are women 
and three are men. So the killer could 
easily be a woman. Which, in fact, was 
another problem. They wanted to make 
it five men and a woman. I said no. I 
want to make it four women and two 
men, because there just aren't enough 
strong female parts written for televi- 
sion that are not stereotypes. I'm very 
pro the Feminist Movement. It's a good 
thing and I think one of the places 
where it has to be demonstrated is on 

People who have read or listened to 
Harlan know that TV is one of the main 
targets for his storm and thunder. And 
he has a seemingly endless stream of 
stories and anecdotes that corroborate 
his contentions. 

"A guy calls me up; he's producing a 
series for CBS. He asks me to 
come over to the Beverly Hills Hotel to 
meet him for breakfast, so I go over. He 
says to me we got a great idea and we 
want you to write it. It's going to be a 
Saturday morning series, but there's a 
lot of bread in it. I find out that the idea 
was devised by Larry-Harmon, the guy 
who plays Bozo the Clown on TV. Ac- 
tually, it turned out that it wasn't from 
Larry but from his ten -year-old son; 
he came up with the idea. 

"He tells me it's a terrific idea. The 
network loves it and they want it. The 
idea is, there's this family: mother, 
father, two kids and a dog. They go out 
in their backyard and they discover a 
black hole. They fall into it and find a 
new universe. And I sit there and start 
giggling at him. And he says 'What are 
you laughing at?' I said, I don't want 
this to be a shock to your nervous 
system, but a black hole ain't a black 
hole. He says 'What?' I said it isn't a 
black hole— it's a sun whose matter has 
collapsed so that light cannot escape 
from it so therefore it looks like a hole. 
It swallows everything and crushes it 
into nothing. If this family walks out 
into their yard and finds a black hole, 
it'd probably swallow them, the plants, 
the backyard, the street, the town, the 
television, the viewer . . . everything. 

"He says, 'The network likes it. Isn't 
there some way we can do it? ' " 

(And if you don't think they found a 


way, check out a show called Land of 
the Lost some Saturday morning.) 

Harlan was recently involved with the 
on again/off again Star Trek movie. 

"I never actually wrote a story treat- 
ment for the movie but I devised one. I 
was called in by Roddenberry. Gene and 
I talked over one and got it together and 
it fell through and subsequently he 
called me back again after two or three 
other writers had bombed out. I came 
up with another one, very complex and 
quite good. We talked it over with the 
guy who was the liaison at Paramount 
at the time. He was an idiot and he kept 
wanting me to put in Ancient Aztecs! 
And I said they didn't have any Ancient 
Aztecs back at the dawn of time — which 
is where most of the story took place — 
and he says 'Well yeah, but I read Von 
Daniken and that would be interesting.' 
So I just kind of threw up my hands and 

Harlan Ellison's work and style have 
influenced many people involved in 
science fiction, both fan and pro alike. 
But what are the things from Harlan's 
background, from his childhood, that 
have influenced him? 

"I taught myself to read when I was 
very young. By the time I was a teen- 
ager, I had read through all of the 
classics. But my reading was a strange 
mixture. My imagination was stirred by 
the pulps — Doc Savage, The Shadow." 
(That would explain the T-shirt.) "And 
I was very big on comic books. I loved 
Air boy, The Heap, Plastic Man, Man 
O' War ■, Blackhawk — I never cared 
much for Superman — I loved Captain 
Marvel; adored Captain Marvel." 

Harlan loved one series of comics so 
much that he almost singlehandedly 
caused their prices to skyrocket. 

"I loved George Carlson's Jingle 
Jangle Comics. He was a brilliant artist. 
I've got a complete set. Did you ever 
lead the article I wrote about it in All In 
Color For a Dime? Called 'Comic of the 

Indeed I had read it and apparently 
was not alone. 

"Before I wrote the article (1970) you 
could get Jingle Jangle comics because 
they are of the 'funny animal' kind. 
You could get them for ten or fifteen 
cents a copy. Now (after the article) you 
can't buy the goddam things for under 
twenty bucks apiece." 

Comics have been one of the con- 
stants in Harlan's life. In the sixties he 
wrote a now-famous issue of the Hulk 
and three issues of The Avengers for 
Marvel Comics. Today he is involved 
with the only sanctuary left for out- 
spoken comics writers, the under- 

Although comics were an early obses- 
sion for him, Harlan only dabbled in 
science fiction until his late teens. 

"I read almost everything (in SF) 
after I got into it, which was in 1951 

(Excerpt from Harlan's resignation 
speech before the SFWA.) 

"... Out there on the coast, 
there are an infinite number of 
clowns who have come out of 
mailrooms and out of advertising 
agencies directly into ownership of 
studios and these people like to 
steal properties. They don't 
understand that they are not 
allowed to steal properties. I had a 
meeting with a producer and he 
wanted me to do a 'giant ant' 
movie. And I said 'That's a dumb 
movie; I don't want to do that.' 
and he said 'Well, if you don't like 
that one, I got a lot of other 
ideas — ' and he pointed to a stack 
of old pulp magazines. He said 
'Just go through that and pick out 
what you like.' 

They don't know that you exist 
and that you own those properties. 
Therefore, when The Man Who 
Fell to Earth is made — and they 
rip-off Walt Tenis again as they did 
with The Hustler. I get a call within 
90 days of the release of that film, 
and (there is) a major network and 
two production companies wanting 
to specifically do rip-offs of The 
Man Who Fell to Earth. And I, 
being the ethical writer that I am, 
say, 'Sorry, I cannot rip-off my 
friends. I will come in and work up 
another idea for you equally as 
cliche'd as an alien falling to Earth; 
that's not the only idea.' But no, 
they want to do that. And there 
will be a series that is a direct rip- 
off of The Man Who Fell to Earth. 
But Walter Tenis won't see a 

when my father died. Prior to that I had 
read it only sporadically and hadn't 
known I was reading science fiction." 

Even though Harlan had read his way 
through most of the top authors, he 
credits only one with having made a 
lasting impression. 

"The only writer who had any in- 
fluence on me at all, whom I read with 
any regularity, was Clark Ashton 
Smith. Any pronounced effect on my 
work was Smith." But he did read the 
others and made use of what he read. "I 
took elements of how to describe an en- 
tire society in terms of one little 
technological thing ... I got it from 
reading a Heinlein story where someone 
walks through a door and the door 
'irised,' instead of 'opening' or 'clos- 
ing,' and I thought, Wow! 

"A sense of the fantastic and the 
super-fantastic, which I had thought I 
had gotten from Ray Bradbury from 
Pillar of Fire, was actually him im- 
itating Clark Ashton Smith. The only 
other writer to have an influence on me 
was Algis Budrys. A.J. worked with me 
for many years." (He was Harlan's 
teacher and advisor back in his college 
days.) "Apart from those two, there is 
nothing in my work which reflects 
anybody else." 

We came back to the present and 
discussed the various lives of A Boy 
And His Dog. It has gone through 
several incarnations. Originally it was a 
novella (awarded a Nebula in 1969) 
and then a movie. Now it is to become a 
television series. 

"Yes, NBC bought it. The series will 
probably be called Blood's A Rover, 
from the poem by, I can never 
remember.., A.E. Housman. I've always 
intended to write a sequel to the story 
featuring a woman who is a solo in that 
society, and she's just as tough as Vic. 
Apparently a great many women see 
that story and the movie as a paen of 
praise to rape and the brutalization of 
women. It is not. I intended it to be a 
cautionary tale. It was actually a 
political statement that I wrote after the 
Kent State massacre, in which I por- 
trayed the fat burghers of Kent, Ohio— 
the Kawanis who had a luncheon and 
made a public statement and said that 
the National Guard should have shot all 
those kids. Those are the people of the 
Downunder city, as opposed to the kids 
who, without thinking, are the Rovers. 
People have forgotten that condition of 
life that existed in this country only a 
decade ago and they see A Boy And His 
Dog only as brutalization against 
women. They fail to pay attention to the 
fact that it's just as much brutalization 
against men; more in fact. 

"I was just up at the University of 
Rochester and they were trying to cen- 
sor the film. Women were trying to cen- 
sor it. And I went up there — I waived 
my speaker's fee, which is about three 

Harlan is a veteran talk show guest. 

He has appeared on many nationally broadcast 

programs discussing a variety of topics. 

While in New York, he appeared on Midday 

Live to discuss the Nixon-Frost interviews. 

grand a night — I said just fly me up 
there and I'll debate it. And we did and 
it was covered by the networks and 
PBS. There was a lot of jingoism and 
craziness and the men acted worse than 
the women. 

"The men were screaming out things 
like 'bitch', etc., so I had to get up and 
say 'You're the crazy people who are 
making the women act like this, so stop 
it. We've got to co-exist and the 
separatists cannot be allowed to have 
their way.' I discovered that what had 
happened was that four women who are 
lesbian separatists had maneuvered the 
entire University of Rochester Women's 
Caucus to boycott and censor the film. 
It was one hell of anight." 

But Harlan listened to the angry rant- 
ings, and learned. "They thought the 
issue was sexism; I thought the issue was 
censorship. What I heard from them is 
that I'm not getting across to women. 
So I set out to write a sequel — Blood's A 

Switching media, Harlan spoke about 
his record albums. 

"Actually, I've cut two records with 
Alternate Worlds, produced by Roy and 
Shelley Torgeson.* The first is called 
Harlan! It's me reading two of my 
stories, Repent, Harlequin ! Said the 
Ticktockman, which is one of the ten 
most reprinted stories in the English 
language, and Shatterday, a story I did 
a couple of years ago. 

"The album is in the true tradition of 
oral history. It's something I prefer do- 
ing much more than television. I do not 
think that I'll be in television much 
longer. I cannot ethically continue to 
work in a medium that destroys the im- 
agination. As opposed to the records. 
Listening to records means that you 
have to use your head — you have to en- 
vision and dream things for yourself. 
It's like reading a book; it's a par- 
ticipatory action. 

"The second album is called Blood! 
The Life and Future Times of Jack the 
Ripper. It's myself and Robert Bloch 
doing our stories about Jack the Ripper. 
His famous story, Yours Truly, Jack the 
Ripper, and then A Toy for Juliet 
— which appeared in Dangerous Visions 
(which Harlan edited) — and my sequel 
to Toy called The Prowler in the City on 
the Edge of the World. It's a two-record 

Finally, a hypothetical question was 
posed. If Harlan were producing a 
science-fiction TV show, and had final 

(Continued on page 48) 

•For information on how to acquire Harlan! and 
Alternate World's other SF record albums, see the 
advertisement on page 31 ■ 


A column of opinion by David Gerrold 

I have been having this fan- 
tasy about the new Star Trek movie — 

Now, mind you, I am not working on 
the movie, I am not connected with it in 
any way (although I have mentioned to 
Gene Roddenberry that I would like a 
chance to be a crewperson aboard the 
good ship Enterprise, just once — and 
certainly, there are bound to be a few 
"background" parts in the script — and 
Gene has said he certainly isn't averse to 
the idea. . .) — but there are these two 
scenes that keep bubbling up to the 
surface of my mind, and I have decided 
to classify them in the "Scenes I'd like 
to see. . ." department of Star Trek 

Now, mind you— these are only fan- 
tasy. I don't know what the movie is go- 
ing to be about, and I am not making 
suggestions to Gene Roddenberry on 
how it should be done or what it should 
include — if anybody knows Star Trek, 
it's certainly Gene Roddenberry— but 
these are just my own personal fan- 
tasies, and I share them with you for 
whatever entertainment value there may 
be in them . . . 

SCENE ONE: The necessary exposi- 
tion is this. The Enterprise has been 
destroyed in some kind of disaster, and 
a new Enterprise is being built. Admiral 
Kirk is briefing the Captain of the new 
Enterprise about his first mission, which 
will also be his shakedown cruise. Also 
present are Ambassador Sarek and 
ranking Star fleet Commander, Admiral 
George La Forge. The new captain of 
the Enterprise is Captain Chekov. 
Captain Chekov wants to go after the 
cause of the disaster that destroyed the 
old Enterprise. Admiral Kirk insists that 
his first mission be to search for possi- 
ble survivors — there were a number of 
habitable planets in the area that they 
could have escaped to. (I imagine the 
disaster involved the sudden discom- 
bobulation of the ship, so that the 
saucer section had to separate and flee 
for home under impulse power. Those 
down in the Engineering section — 
obviously Scotty, but perhaps also 
Spock, Chapel and McCoy — were left 

Captain Chekov is determined to 
prove himself a credit to Starfleet quick- 
ly, therefore he wants to take on the big- 
gest challenge he can. He is very insis- 


tent about wanting to seek out and 
destroy the cosmic discombobulator, 
but Admiral Kirk orders him to search 
for survivors first. Admiral Kirk will be 
going along on the shakedown cruise 
anyway — but his role is no longer to 
command the Enterprise, only to make 
sure that the new Captain of the Enter- 
prise is as able a commander as possi- 
ble. It's not his job to overrule Captain 
Chekov, but finding the survivors of 
any space disaster is always a number 
one Starfleet priority. 

Chekov questions, "Are you sure it's 
not just your friendship for them, Ad- 
miral Kirk?" 

Kirk answers, "If they weren't my 
friends, I would still insist on this 
mission — should I hesitate to rescue 
them because I like them?" 

And he turns and leaves. 

Captain Chekov turns to Admiral La 
Forge and asks if he agrees. Admiral La 
Forge says, "Captain Chekov, there is 
one thing you need to learn if you are 
ever to be the Captain that Kirk was, 
and still is. Compassion. Ninety percent 
of good leadership is compassion. Kirk 
has it, so do you — you just haven't 
learned to trust your own sense of it yet; 
but every great command decision 
throughout the Starfleet's history has 
been based on compassion for every 
person involved. That's why human 
beings have always been the best Cap- 
tains for our ships — they're not always 
the most intelligent, or the most 
rational — but they are the most compas- 
sionate. We can always surround a Cap- 
tain with advisors to give him the in- 
telligent and rational advice, we can.sur- 
round a Captain with brilliance — but he 
has to make the decisions himself, so 
he's the one who has to have the com- 

Chekov looks from Sarek to La 
Forge, then asks, "But that would mean 
Vulcans would not be good captains." 

Admiral La Forge nods in agreement. 
"There have been no Vulcan captains in 
Starfleet since the Intrepid was lost." 

Captain Chekov looks to Ambassa- 
dor Sarek and asks, "Sir, do you agree 
with this policy?" 

And Ambassador Sarek replies, "I 
not only agree, I suggested the policy. It 
is the only logical policy to have." He 
adds, "There is a logical reason for 

everything that exists — even emotions. 
We Vulcans have emotions, we merely 
do not let them determine the shape of 
our decisions — in one way, that is a 
weakness, for in our control of the 
negative emotions, we have also in- 
hibited our ability to express our 
positive emotions. We have learned to 
stifle hate, but along the way, our 
capacity to love has also been muted — 
we did not realize until too late that they 
were two sides of the coin of caring. 
You humans still care — and all decisions 
must be made with a great deal of care. 
Your Admiral is correct, Captain 

And that ends the conversation — but 
we see Chekov looking bothered by this 
conversation, and that is the definition 
of the personal battle that he will some- 
day have to master — how to use his own 
compassion. But that's another story. 

SCENE TWO: The survivors. Spock 
and Chapel are among them. 

One afternoon, Spock asks Christine 
Chapel to accompany him on a survey- 
ing expedition to a nearby hill. Actually, 
it is just a ploy to be alone with her for a 
while, because he has something he 
wants to tell her. 

"Nurse Chapel," he says, "Do you 
know why my father married my 

"Because it was the logical thing to 
do," she replies. Those words have 
stuck in her memory ever since 
"Journey To Babel." 

"Have you never thought about why 
it was logical?" Spock asks. 

Chapel looks puzzled, she shakes her 

"I have thought about it recently — 
especially since we have been stranded 
on this world, and it does not look as if 
we will be rescued. I have been thinking 
about the future — as well as the past. 
My father was the first Vulcan Ambas- 
sador to Starfleet. Before him, Vulcans 
wanted to have nothing to do with 
human beings; but as human beings 


Mr. Gerrold has been given a free hand to express any 
ideas, with any attitude, and in any language he wishes, 
and therefore this column does not necessarily represent 
the editorial views of STAR LOG magazine nor our 
philosophy. The content is copyrighted © 1977 by David 

continued to spread throughout this 
part of the galaxy, it became obvious 
that Vulcans would have to understand 
them. My birth is part of that 
process — I am certain of it. Sarek mar- 
ried Amanda as an experiment." 

"An experiment — ?" 

"Yes, to see if humans and Vulcans 
could intermarry — and if so, to see if 
human bloodlines could be improved by 
the addition of Vulcan genes. You see, 
humans are strong on emotions, but 
weak on mental abilities. However, 
their emotions were driving them far- 
ther and farther out into the galaxy. It 
would be only to Vulcan's best interests 
to make certain that humanity's reason- 
ing powers be as rational as possible, so 
I — that is, my birth and my whole life — 
are part of a vast experiment to improve 
the human race." 

"I see — " Christine says. She is very 
much startled. 

Spock stops and turns to face her — he 
even takes her by the hands. "But the 
experiment isn't over, Christine. I'm 
only the first generation — I have to 
know that I am not a mule; that is, 
sterile, as some mixed-breeds are. I have 
to breed, too, I have to continue the 
process of infusing Vulcan genes into 
the human race." 

Nurse Chapel begins to get the idea. 
"Are you asking me to marry you? " 

Spock says, "It is the only logical 
thing to do. We are here, we will be here 
for many years, perhaps the rest of our 
lives-. The experiment must continue. I 
am from a good bloodline, I have 
studied your genetic chart, too, and you 
are from a good bloodline — we will 
make wonderful children together." 

Christine asks, "But do you love 

"I respect you," Spock says. "I ad- 
mire you, I cherish your intelligence and 
your ability. I appreciate your beauty." 

"But do you love me?" she asks. 

"Love is not the only consideration 
for a marriage," Spock replies. 

"I know — but all of those other 
qualities that you listed, you can find 
them in any woman in Star fleet. You 
can find those qualities in any of the 
other women who've survived with us. 
But a marriage, Spock — it's not a — a 
job that you fill; it's something more 
important than that — it's a life. Do you 

And Spock says, "I don't know." 

And Christine Chapel says, "I cannot 
marry you, Spock. I want to marry you 
more than anything else in this or any 
other world — but I cannot marry you." 

"I will make you happy, Chris- 
tine — " Spock says, "and my demeanor 
would be the same whether I loved you 
or not; you would never know the 
difference — " 

"Spock, you may be right. You know 
the inside of your own head better than 
anyone else. But it is not my happiness 

that we are talking about — it is your 
happiness. I love you so much that it is 
your happiness that is essential to my 
own. Unless I can know for certain that 
it is / who give you the most happiness 
"in your life then it is wrong to marry 
you. Unless you love me, / will not 
marry you." 

And Spock thinks about it and says, 
"That is very logical, Christine. I will 
have to think about it. . ." 

Ultimately perhaps, Spock does dis- 
cover how he feels about Nurse Chapel, 
but that, too, is another story. . . 

Just a side note here on another sub- 
ject altogether. I have recently signed up 

with the American Program Bureau, 
Inc., as a lecturer, available to colleges 
and public forums. I wish that my ap- 
pearances were scheduled far enough in 
advance so that I could note them in this 
column, but these columns are written 
at least two months before publication. 
If your college does have a lecture series, 
however, or you would like to see them 
bring in some interesting speakers, you 
can write to the American Program 
Bureau at 850 Boylston St., Chestnut 
Hill, MA 02167. Their catalog is a cross 
section of some of the most interesting 
voices in America, and I'm delighted to 
be numbered among them. -^ 


Here is the latest information on upcom- 
ing conventions. Since the main emphasis 
of a convention is not always easily discer- 
nable from its title, we are including a nota- 
tion after each one to help clarify what kind 
of con it is. Star Trek cons are denoted with 
(ST); Science Fiction cons will have (SF). 
Other cons will also be appropriately label- 
ed. As usual, guests and features for most 
conventions are subject to last minute 
changes; for final details check with the 
person or organization listed. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

July 15-18, 1977 

Star Trek Philadelphia 

c/o Tri-Star Industries 

88 New Dorp Plaza 

Staten Island, New York 10306 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin July 22 & 23, 1 977 

Infinite Star 77 
c/o Infitine Star Productions 
S2421 Momingside Dr. 
Waukesha, Wisconsin 53186 


College Park, Md. August 5-7, 1977 

August Party 77 
c/o U MAST 
9005 Howser Lane 
Lanham, Maryland 20801 


New York City September 2-5, 1977 

Star Trek America 
88 New Dorp Plaza 
Staten Island, New York 10306 


San Diego , California Sept. 30-0ct. 2 

Star Con San Diego 

4474 Winona, #5 

San Diego, California 921 15 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


P0 Box 15721 

Salt Lake City, Utah 841 15 

October 14 & 15 


Tulsa, Oklahoma 


Box 4229 

Tulsa, Oklahoma 741 04 

July 30, 1977 

Richmond Virginia 

Star Trek Con '77" 
c/o Jim Thompson 
214 Randolph St. #39 
Ashland, Virginia 23005 

Chattanooga, TN 

c/o Irving Koch 
835 Chatt Bk Bg 
Chattanooga, Tennessee 37402 

77" (ST) 
November 5 & 6, 1977 

January 6-8, 1978 


(Continued from page 16) 

this London production will feature some "revolutionary" 
special effects. Bantam Books will do the paperback. 
According to A Piece of the Action, William Shatner will 
be starring in a new horror flick, Kingdom of the Spiders. 
Production began on March 21 in Arizona . . . Richard 
Benjamin has described his NBC pilot of Quark this way, 
"You have to think of it as Star Trek gotten into the wrong 
hands. ..." According to Jeffrey M. Lapin of 
Writers' Digest, they have a new book on the market: 
Writing and Selling Science Fiction. It's a collection of 

eleven articles covering the markets, characterization, 
dialog, "world building," alien building, and money. 
Contributors include James Gunn, Jerry Pournelle, Andrew 
Offutt and others. It sells for $7.95 ... 
This October, radio audiences will be able to experience 
the chilling terror felt by millions of Americans that fateful 
Halloween Eve, back in 1938, when Orson Welles presented 
his audio version of H.G. Wells' immortal classic, The 
War of the Worlds. However, this time it will not be a re- 
broadcast of the Mercury Theater production, but a totally 
new production by Yuri Rasovsky for his Chicago Radio 


An amphibious automobile, the "Wetbike," and the 
construction of the world's largest sound stage are some of 
the creations that give a new look to the latest James Bond 
film, The Spy Who Loved Me. The underwater automobile, 
a specially adapted Lotus Esprit, looks and handles on land 
as does any ordinary Lotus. But its underwater 
modification enables it to cruise submerged at a speed of 
7.2 knots and at a depth of 45 feet. It was converted for its 
aquatic assignment by the Florida-based Perry 
Oceanographic Company. Its special features include wheels 
that retract, a periscope and special propulsion and rudder 
units for underseas cruising. It is armed with rockets, 
missies and harpoon guns, and its protective equipment 
includes radar screen and steel louvres. The "Wetbike" is 
Nelson Tyler's latest invention. Straight off the beaches of 
Southern California, it is a motor cycle on water skis. (It 
will be introduced commercially after the film's release by 

OO? 3 ^ 


the AVR Corp.) The largest sound stage in the world, and 
the first to be built by the Western World in eight years, 
was constructed at Pinewood studio for the film. 
Appropriately dubbed "Stage Number 007," the $1,650,000 
construction encloses a section of the interior of the 600,000 
ton supertanker, Liparus, which provides berth for three 
nuclear submarines in a tank holding 1 ,200,000 gallons of 
water. One end of the facility becomes the prow of the 
Liparus, whose doors open like jaws in order to swallow its 
prey— nuclear submarines. Producer Broccoli toured studios 
on two continents in search of facilities large enough to 
handle the Liparus interior sequences which comprise about 
20 minutes of the film. All of the previous title-holders for 
world's largest sound stage proved inadequate for one 
reason or another. Even an old R.A.F. dirigible hangar was 
considered before the go-ahead was given to build the new 
facility. Previous record holders were M.G.M.'s Stage 15 
which is 311 feet by 137 feet by 40 feet; Cinecitta #5 in 
Rome (used for Ben Hur) 261 feet by 1 18 feet by 45 feet; 
and Shepperton "H" (home of 2001: A Space Odyssey) 250 
feet by 119 feet by 45 feet. Fans of the volcano set for You 
Only Live Twice will be pleased with James Bond's new 
dimensions, if 


Issue No. 9 will be a "first" for 
STARLOG. The entire magazine will 
be devoted to science fiction on 
television, and our staff has been busy 
assembling an incredible line-up of 
personal interviews and feature 
articles. From the new fall shows we 
will talk with Pat Duffy, star of Man 

From Atlantis and the producer of the 
new series, Logan's Run. The two 
most requested personalities from last 
season will be featured in exclusive 
interviews: Linda Carter, sexy sassy 
star of the returning Wonder Woman 
series and Jared Martin, handsome 
popular star of the ill-fated Fantastic 


on sale 
THURSDAY, SEPT. 1, 1977 


Journey. You'll spend a day on the 
beach with William Shatner talking 
about how he views his past projects 
and what he has up his sleeve for the 
future. You'll meet Gerry Anderson, 
producer, director and creator of 
numerous TV shows, including Space: 
1999 and Thunderbirds, and you'll 
hear what he has to say about the 1999 
cancellation and about STARLOG. 
Our Special Effects series will focus 
itself on the video studio and explain 
the techniques unique to tape 
production. There's much more, but 
we'll leave a few surprises for the first 
day of September. This special, 
blockbuster issue will contain more 
pages than ever before . . „ truly 
destined, even before it's birth, to be a 
collector's edition. 

new dimension in fantasy 
£t science fiction records ! 

Gravely, Robert Bloch 

Robert Bloch 
Author of Psycho; Reads His Stories 
That Hell-Bound Train, Enoch 

"Robert Bloch has succeeded in adding human 
insight to fantasy and replacing the horror of 
ancient demonology with the far more subtle terror 
to be found lurking at the back of our 
minds." — Lester Del Rey 

Liner Notes by Lester Del Rey 

Jacket Illustration by Gahan Wilson 

AWR3210 1-12" LP $6.98 

Gonna Roll the Bones 

as read by Fritz Leiber 
s" Gonna Roll the Bones In the Witch 's Tent 
(Fafhrdand Gray Mouser Story) 

"Almost from the beginning of his career as a 
writer, Fritz Leiber has been among the most hon- 
ored creators of science fiction and fantasy ... On 
this record, reading from his own works, Fritz 
Leiber does what one would have thought impos- 
sible, making his stories come still more alive than 
they are onthe printed page." — Poul Anderson 

Liner Notes by Poul Anderson 

Jacket Illustration by Thomas G. Barber, Jr. 

AWR 3239 1-12" LP $6.98 

The Ones Who Walk Away From 

as read by Ursula K. LeGuin 

The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 

Direction of the Road, The Orgota Creation Myth 

Widely acclaimed as one of today's leading 
authors, Ms. Le Guin reads the title story, an extra- 
polative tale dealing with the happiness of the many 
being dependent on the misery of one. Direction of 
the Road explores the phenomenon of Relative 
Motion. Also included is the creation myth of an Ice 
Age world where everyone is androgynous— from 
her famous novel. The Left Hand of Darkness. 

Liner Notes by Vonda Mclntyre 

Jacket Illustration by George Barr 

AWR 7476 1-12" LP $6.98 


as read by Harlan Ellison 
"Repent, Harlequinl" Said the Ticktockman, Shatterday 

"The latest in a long series of marvels from Ellison 
Wonderland. Harlan has long been an eloquent, 
constructive disturber of the status quo and now 
has added his own voice. The listener will rejoice to 
discover that Ellison reads just as masterfully as he 
writes and that he injects a new dimension into 
tales of a man against his world and of a man 
against himself. Ellison on record is a 
joy!" — Laurence Laurent 

Liner Notes by Isaac Asimov 

Jacket Illustration by Leo and Diane Dillon 

AWR 6922 12" LP $6.98 

The Life and Future Times of 
Jack the Ripper 

as read by Bloch and Ellison 
Yours Truly, Jack the Ripper A Toy for Juliette 
The Prowler in the City at the Edge of the World 

On this deluxe double record album, Bloch and 
Ellison explore the nature of violence through the 

Alternate World Recordings is proud to give you 

Liner Notes by Samuel R. Delany 

Jacket Illustration byEd Emshwiller 

AWR 3340 1-12" LP $6.98 

figure of the infamous Jack the Ripper. Penetrating 
insights into the Violent Man of Today and our cul- 
ture's all too'prevalent tendency to revere and deify 
its monsters such as Al Capone, Billy the Kid, 
Adolph Hitler and Charles Manson. 
Notice: The language and descriptions on these 
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mended for mature listening. 

Liner Notes by Robert Bloch and Harlan Ellison 

Jacket Illustration by Thomas G. Barber, Jr. 

AWR 6925 2-12" LPs $13.98 

— — — — — » — ———i i i 

From the Hells 
Beneath the Hells 

as read by Ugo Toppo 

The Song of a Mad Minstrel 

The Curse of the Golden Skull 

Altars and Jesters — 

An Opium Dream The Mirrors of Tuzun Thune 

Ugo Toppo, acclaimed storyteller, brings to life 
Robert E. Howard's vigorous prose, vivid poetry 
and his worlds of savagery and sorcery. This record 
features two poems and two short stories. 

Liner Notes by Glenn Lord 

Jacket Illustration by Jeff Jones 

AWR 4810 Text Included 1-12" LP $7.98 

Frankenstein Unbound 

A Dramatization Produced in 

Cooperation with the BBC 

Narrated by Brian Aldiss 

Frankenstein Unbound, Brian Aldiss' finest novel, is 
a fictional voyage into discovery of the Franken- 
stein myth designed as an act of homage to and 
exegesis of a novel regarded as one of the master- 
pieces of science fiction, Mary Shelley's Franken- 
stein. A dramatization from the original BBC radio 
broadcast with linking passages read by the author. 

Liner Notes by Christopher Priest 

Jacket Illustration by Thomas G. Barber, Jr. 

AWR 591 1 1 12" LP $6.98 

Theodore Sturgeon Reads 

Bianca's Hands 

The Hurkle is a Happy Beast 

Britt Svenglund (selection from the 

forthcoming novel, Goodbody) 

"To the extent that the short rftory is an art, Stur- 
geon is the American short story writer. The fact 
that he happens to be writing in science fiction is a 
glorious accident." — Samuel R. Delany. 

When It Changed,.GIeepsite 
Excerpts from The Female Man 

Joanna Russ combines fantasy and science fiction 
with her involvement in the Women's Movement, 
generating considerable excitement and contro- 
versy. When It Changed explores a future world 
without men, in which women fill all social and per- 
sonal roles. Gleepsite examines the real power of 
imagination. Passages from The Female Man offer 
sardonic commentary on today's male society. Ms. 
Russ is a magnificent reader. 

Liner Notes by Samuel R. Delany 

Jacket Illustration by Thomas G. Barber, Jr. 

AWR 6913 1-12" LP $6.98 

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"Though it be honest, it is never good to 
bring bad news. " — Shakespeare 

"I've got good news and bad news. " 


If I had my way, I'd happily listen to 
The Bard, but out fans deserve to know 
all that's happening. So . . . 

Sorry, but first the bad news. Para- 
mount Studios has rejected the STAR 
TREK movie script by Chris Bryant and 
Allan Scott. As I reported in my last 
STARLOG column, it was undergoing a 
rewrite. Our director, Phil Kaufman, 
found it impractical to rewrite this par- 
ticular script, and proposed a new story 
idea to Paramount. Phil's story, like so 
many other predecessors, was also re- 
jected by the studio. Therefore, after 
two full years on the Paramount lot, we 
are still without a script or even a 
workable story. However, all is not lost. 

Now the good news! Paramount Pic- 
tures has made a new offer to Gene 
Roddenberry, and he is now considering 
this. At present he has not disclosed the 
specifics of this new STAR TREK offer 
to anyone, including yours truly. He 
should be reaching a decision within a 
few weeks, and next month's STAR 
TREK REPORT will give you all the 

And now, Susan Sackett's Complete 
Guide to the Rise and Fall and Rise and 
Fall and Rise and etc. Of The STAR 
TREK Movie. (The film rights to this 
chronicle are available — talk to my 
agent.) • 


May, 1975 — Gene Roddenberry begins 
to write The Script for STAR TREK II. 
June 30, 1975— G.R. turns in The 

July, 1975 — Paramount rejects The 

August, 1975— December, 1975— John 
D.F. Black and Robert Silverberg write 
story outlines for STAR TREK II. 
Harlan Ellison, Ray Bradbury and Ted 

Sturgeon have their brains picked by 

August, 1975-December, 1975 — Paramount 
rejects the stories of John D.F. Black and 
Robert Silverberg. Also, the brains of 
Harlan Ellison, Ray Bradbury and Ted 

January, 1976 — Gene Roddenberry 
prepares a new story with another 
writer, Jon Povill. 
February, 1976— May, 1976— 

A. The story is rejected by Para- 
mount. (True) (False) 

B. The STAR TREK movie project 
is transferred into the hands of the 
television department. (True) (False) 

C. Television writers whose credits 
include "77 SUNSET STRIP," 
westerns, and police shows, are asked to 
submit story ideas. (True) (False) 

D. These are all rejected. (True) 

E. STAR TREK II is transferred 
back to the motion picture division. 
(True) (False) 

Score yourself 10 points for every 
"True" answer and points for every 
"False" answer. Give yourself a bonus 
of 10 points every time you said "That 
is highly illogical." 

July, 1976— Jerry Isenberg is assigned 

as Executive Producer. Writers Chris 

Bryant and Allan Scott are signed to 

write The Script. 

September, 1976— Bryant and Scott 

begin the treatment. They believe it will 

take them two months. 

October 8, 1976— Bryant and Scott's 

treatment is accepted by the studio, and 

they begin their Script. 

March 1, 1977— -The Script is com- 

April, 1977— The Script is rejected. 
April-May, 1977— Director Phil Kauf- 
man begins rewrite of The Script in a 
new story concept. 

May 8, 1977— Phil Kaufman's story is 

If you're keeping score (isn't this 
much more fun than the National 
Disaster Test?), you should have: two 
scripts, five stories and a handful of 
left-over picked brains! 

When will there be another new 
script? Or will Gene Roddenberry ac- 
cept a new, intriguing offer from Para- 
mount? Will Captain Kirk and the 
Enterprise come to the rescue? Join us 
here next time for: 

"CHAPTER II— The Blooper Reel 
From Chapter I . " ie 

given up on the Star Trek 

(The following is a timely excerpt from 
an exclusive interview with Mr. 
Shatner which will appear in the next 
issue of STARLOG.) 

"An interesting situation has happened 
with the Star Trek movie. A year ago, 
Paramount came to me and said, 
'There's a log jam here; nobody wants 
to sign until they see a script, and 
there can't be a script until you guys 
sign because we don't want to commit 
to all those millions of dollars without 
having some members of the cast. 
So with some negotition and a little 
faith, I said, 'Okay, I'll sign . . . and 
they paid me some money for signing 
the contract. Now it's a year later . . . 
and they said to me, 'We're not going 
to renew the contract you signed last 
year.' As far as Paramount is 
concerned, it's an open ballgame now. 
I find myself in the position of being 
let go! 

So I have said, 'As far as I'm 
concerned, the Star Trek movie does 
not exist for me.' I'm going off and 
doing my own thing— -which includes 
Broadway, record albums, films . . . 
I've given up on the Star Trek 


rumors you've been 
hearing are inaccurate." 

In an effort to keep our readers inform- 
ed on all of the latest Trek 
developments, we called Susan Sackett 
just as we were going to press. She 
reiterated what she said in her first col- 
umn: STARLOG is the place to look for 
correct information on Trek and all 
other Roddenberry projects. The 
following statements are excerpted from 
that phone conversation with Susan. 

"Rona Barrett came on the air and 
said something that was totally false— 
her statement about a two-hour TV- 
movie now in the works is totally false." 
(The movie has not been officially 
cancelled, but the studio has made an 
alternate offer to Gene.) 

"There will be a fourth major net- 
work. Paramount has purchased the old 
Hughes network and they would like 
Star Trek to be a part of it— to be a fall 
series. They will be preparing fifteen to 
twenty programs over the next two 
years. This is one of the possibilities that 
Gene is considering. He's also going to 
be putting out a flyer to our fan clubs to 
solicit the opinions of our fans." (The 
flyer will list all of the various 
possibilities — movie, TV mini-series, 
etc., and ask that you circle your 

Fans are requested to "Continue 
writing to Paramount. Let them see how 
much you want Star Trek back — in 
whatever form— under Gene Rodden- 
berry's control. They would go ahead 
and do it without him if he didn't want 
to do it the way they wanted it. They 
wouldn't do a halfway decent job, but it 
could happen because they own it." So 
the idea is to let the studio know that 
Star Trek's fans want the show's 
creator, Gene, to be in charge of any 
Trek project to be produced. 

Next issue, Susan promises to have 
the definitive word on how it all works 
out. (That is, if it has been worked out 
by that time.) So stay tuned to this 
column — your direct link to all things Trek. 

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• Zip. 

Who hasn't, at one time or another, dreamed of 

being an astronaut? Haven't we all taken that 

fantasy trip— imagining the rumble of the rockets' 

roar; the crush of acceleration; the dizzying drop of 

free-fall in zero gravity; the thrill of knowing that the 

infinite universe is but a few centimeters away, 
chilling the outside of the ship's sleek, steel skin . . . 

Realizing The Dream 


Nichelle Nichols' company, Women in Motion, 
is under NASA contract to publicize the 
space program and recruit potential astronauts. 


She would like to make the trip herself and 
discussed the possibility with fomer NASA 


Readers of science 
fiction have long been aware of the 
ecstasy and excitement of space travel. 
For years we've followed the exploits of 
larger-than-life heroes as they've eased 
their way into space and beyond. And 
for many of them it really was easy. 
Robert Heinlein's Starman Jones was 
just a runaway kid who picked up the 
skills needed for spaceflight while on 
board a rocket. Burrough's John Carter 
was a Southern gentleman and Con- 
federate soldier who proved a fast 

Administrator, James Fletcher. He said "maybe." learner when hastily deposited on Mars. 

Flash Gordon, one of the great space 
heroes of all time, got his chance when 
he was kidnapped by a paranoid Dr. 
Zarkov. It was even easier for the hero 
of another Heinlein novel, who crystal- 
ized the dream in Have Spacesuit, Will 

Yes, throughout the history of science 
fiction there have been a host of ordin- 
ary citizens chosen by fate to experience 
the delights of soaring through outer 

The real world of astronautics, how- 
ever, has been dismayingly different in 
its choice of prospective space voyagers. 
No ordinary applicants need apply. The 

men who have flown into space during 
the past two decades have been picked 
from an elite cadre of highly trained and 
superbly conditioned individuals. So 
few of these all-around specimens have 
been selected for actual missions that 
many a would-be astronaut has put 
aside his or her dreams of planet-hop- 
ping in despair. 

Well, the time may be right to remove 
those dreams of glory from the moth- 
balls. As often happens with delightful 
reliability, modern science FACT is 
finally catching up with the traditional 
science FICTION. With the dawning of 
the Space Shuttle era, space will indeed 

This artist's representation of a routine 
Shuttle lift-off is detailed and accurate— 
up to a point. Apparently he forgot that 
the maneuvering rockets on the Shuttle are 
not intended for use during lift-off. 

be wide open for practically anybody 
who wants to try for it. 

Banished forever will be the days of 
the elite corps. Between 1961 and the 
present day only about forty different 
Americans have flown into orbit or 
beyond. But with the advent of the 
Shuttle missions in 1979, those minis- 
cule numbers will mushroom. The 
decade of the 1980s will see between 


t w* 





Above: Artist's conception of the interior view of the upper 

flight deck of the crew compartment. The four-person crew is 

seated in launch configuration. Below: A sleepy crewman swims 

in O-gravity to the "head," while others doze in sleep restraints. 

Above: On the lower flight deck the four-person crew is having 
a meal in the living area. Left foreground is the airlock ac- 
cess to the cargo bay. Since most foodstuffs are sealed in 
plastic envelopes a crewman uses scissors as a utensil. 

five hundred and one thousand space 
travelers from the. United States alone. 
And if proposals now under study prove 
persuasive to budget planners, that 
newfound population may well be mul- 
tiplied twentyfold during the 1990 s. 
The space frontier is going to be just 
that ... an unchartered realm just 
waiting to be explored by modern day 
pioneers from every walk of life. 

This means that many readers of this 
article may be journeying into space 
themselves by the end of this century. 
This is not fantasy. This is not science 
fiction. This is hard, cold, quantifiable 

The key element in this revolutionary 
new opportunity for everyday would-be 
astronauts to actually travel and work 
among the stars is the new Space Shuttle 
rocket-plane. This reusable space ferry, 
with two recoverable, rocket-assisted 
take-off boosters and a large drop tank 
for fuel, will be flown by a crew of three 
professional astronauts. They will be 
pilots and engineers: two pilots for the 
front seats and one "mission specialist" 
for the flight engineer position. 

Now, many a science- fiction fan has 
probably imagined sitting steely-eyed 
and square-jawed at the helm of some 
giant spaceship, hands firmly gripping 
the throttle as the engines roar and the 
Earth falls far behind. For a few such 
dreamers, their wishes may one day be 
fulfilled. But for the most, the numbers 
just aren't there. Not in the pilot's seat, 

In this sense, the Shuttle program still 
clings to the elitist theory. Assuming a 
full traffic load of sixty or more Space 
Shuttle flights per year (conducted by a 
fleet of five different vehicles led by the 
already constructed Enterprise) with 
three flights per pilot a year, simple cal- 
culations show that forty astronauts (a 
commander and a pilot for each mis- 
sion) could easily handle the duty. For 
the mission specialist, another forty 
engineers and scientists could satisfy all 
personnel requirements. 

Assuming an average duty tour of 
five to ten years, the turnover rate of the 
Space Shuttle crew astronauts would 
only produce about a dozen or so open- 
ings a year. These numbers aren't much 
better than the highly competitive space 
corps days of the Apollo missions. 
NASA's latest recruitment drive (which 
will culminate in the selection of thirty 
to forty astronauts late in 1977) still 
resembles the old program. These new 
recruits will be career astronauts; 
regular duty crewmen for the routine 
operations of the Space Shuttle. 

Sound discouraging? Well, things 
aren't as bad as they may seem at first 
glance. For, aboard each and every 
Space Shuttle, there will be four addi- 
tional seats available for additional 
passengers. Not pilots. Not engineers. 
But passengersl These crew members 




NASA is currently carrying out 
numerous experiments involving adults 
in different age groups in an effort to 
recreate on Earth the environment to 
which humanity eventually must adapt 
in outer space. Risks and remedies must 
be determined and evaluated before 
people can live and work outside the 
confines of our atmosphere. 

On the morning of April 14, ten 
women in the 35-to-45 age group volun- 
tarily signed in at the Human Research 
Facility at NASA's Ames Research 
Center, to begin a 27-day schedule of 
rigorous and demanding medical tests. 
The objective of the tests is to study 
tolerance differences of various age 
groups to the stressful effects on the 
human body when Space Shuttle passen- 
gers re-enter Earth's atmosphere after 
several days of weightlessness in space. 

The program, which bears the title 
"Shuttle Re-Entry Acceleration Toler- 
ances in Male and Female Subjects 
Before and After Bed Rest," is being 
conducted by members of the Biomedi- 
cal Research Division at the Ames 
Center, under the direction of Dr. 
Harold Sandler. 

The rationale for using prolonged bed 
rest to measure bodily responses is that 
this is one way by which a physical ap- 
proximation of the zero gravity expe- 
rienced in space can be achieved on 
Earth. Bodily changes begin within 24 
to 48 hours after total bed rest begins 
and will continue to develop throughout 
fhe following seven days of the bed rest 
.-period.. '-•• '' \zj\ ■. ■'?'-•//" ''■•: 

(Earlier medical findings based on 
space flights by astronauts oh Apollo 
and Skylab missions suggested that a 
prolonged lack of gravity brought about 
distinct — though apparently not danger- 

ous or permanent— changes in blood 
composition, muscle tone, bone sub- 
stances and circulatory and heart func- 

Once zero gravity has been approx- 
imated, medical researchers Can study 
human responses to the introduction of 
both normal and abnormal Shuttle re- 
entry gravity forces.; Other tests assess 
the value of anti-gravity suits as a pro- 
tection against the stresses experienced 
during re-entry. Also needed are evalua- 
tions of the human ability to perform 
prescribed duties efficiently aboard a 
spacecraft while under the pressures of 

As part of the program, subjects learn 
to fly a flight simulator in a sitting posi 
tion and lying down, since during the 
bed rest study all test procedures are 
done from a supine position. During 
bed rest, numerous blood samples are 
taken, and deep body temperatures and 
electrocardiograms are recorded con - 
tenuously to determine the effects of 
"zero gee" on the rhythms of each in 
dividual. Even their sleep patterns are 

Continual wearing of a "biobelt" 
around the waist is required. This con- 
tains the antennae that send various 
kinds of data to recorders in another 
room at the facility. In addition, ten 
centrifuge rides and four lower body 
negative pressure tests, plus the test 
"flights" of the simulator (placed above 
the subject's head) are for the purpose 
Of measuring reflexes and coordination 
as well as heart and blood functions. 

A six-day recovery period follows 
completion of the bed rest period. The 
volunteers are given their final blood 
tests along with a complete physical ex- 
amination. They are then discharged, to 
be replaced by a group of people in a 
different age group. 

These courageous volunteers will 
probably never experience the joys and 
hardships of actual space travel. But 
their invaluable assistance is helping to 
pave the way for a whole generation of 
people who will be spending part of 
their lives living and working outside of 
Earth's domain. 

• ,■..-. ■'-'■ 

will be designated as "payload special- 
ists" and will primarily be concerned 
with the scientific and technological ex- 
periments on the flight. And THESE 
seats are currently up for grabs!" 

A payload specialist is basically a 
part-time astronaut. The specialists are 
not NASA employees nor are they 
career spacemen or spacewomen in any 
sense of the word. They are visitors who 
take part in an expedition into orbit 
after less than six months total training 
and who immediately return to their 
homes after their space sabbaticals to 

study the results of their experimen- 

So, while NASA will busily be writing 
multiple round trip tickets for about one 
hundred men and women who will serve 
in the traditional astronaut team, it will 
also be writing up to one thousand ex- 
cursion fare single flight tickets for the 
visiting payload specialists. This new 
program is the most important phase of 
the space age to date. Ordinary men 
who dream of space flight may now take 
to the universe if chosen by NASA, and 
the first selection for the part-time 




EW521 9 75 


ew sat 9-n 

astronaut program will be taking place 
immediately, with most of the first 
choice being made in 1977 and early in 

NASA estimates that at least five 
hundred payload specialists will be able 
to ride the Space Shuttle in the period 
between 1980 and 1989 alone. Some ex- 
perts predict that the number may ex- 
ceed twice that much. All types of peo- 
ple will be included in this "visitor" 
category, too: 

• A technician from a pharmaceutical 
company may spend two weeks in orbit 
operating a vaccine production-module 
which will create drugs of unprece- 
dented purity and potency. 

• An astronomer from a small 
Midwestern college might be chosen to 
implement a celestial observation pro- 
gram on a NASA-provided infra-red 
survey telescope spectrometer. 

• A graduate student in oceanog- 
raphy could do a PhD dissertation from 
orbjt, charting the tropical currents on 
continental shelves. 

• A construction foreman might be 
sent into orbit by his building research 
division to oversee the assembly and 
operation of a beam rolling plant which 
converts Shuttle fuel tank aluminum in- 

James Oberg is an Air Force Captain and aerospace 
engineer detailed to NASA for the Space Shuttle 
program. He is also a free-lance science and space 
writer/lecturer. He is Associate Editcr of Space 
World magazine and a Contributing Editor to 
Astronomy magazine. His articles have appeared in 
such diverse publications as Analog and Sky and 
Telescope. He often lectures on space colonization 
and is a member of the Board of Directors of the 
"L-5 Society" (which is dedicated to the founding 
of space colonies in Earth orbit). 

Top: Cutaway view of crew compartment. 
Note the location of the flight deck and 
the mid deck below with numerous storage 
areas. The payload bay (60 feet by 1 5 feet) 
is located to the rear of the compartment. 

Above: Port side of the crew module. Dur- 
ing manufacture the crew compartment is 
lowered onto the lower forward fuselage 
and the upper fuselage fitted over it. 

Right: Flight Deck. This view displays 
the pilot and co-pilot couches, the con- 
trols and instrumentation lay-out. 

EW 521 


to structural spars half a mile long, to \ 
used in the construction of a giant radic 
telescope and a solar power station. 

• A neurologist studying balance and 
vertigo mechanisms in an attempt to 
understand normal and abnormal brain 
psychology may bring along a small zoo 
of experimental animals and then be 
granted official permission to test reluc- 
tant fellow shipmates, too. 

• An Air Force technical sergeant 
from a New England electronics labora- 
tory might spend days in orbit monitor- 
ing the performance of a new design for 
a large, unfurlable space telemetry 
antenna system. 

Pay load specialists, unlike current 
astronauts, will not be chosen from an 
elite grouping, nor will they be unique in 
any way in terms of backgrounds, in- 
terests and goals. NASA plans to have 
both men and women in the program, 
ranging in age from their early 20 's to 
late 60's. They may be any height from 
5'1" to 6'4". They can wear glasses, 
have false teeth, allergies, flat feet, pot 
bellies and bad posture. All they have to 
do is take what the Air Force calls a 
Class II Flight Physical; a standard test 
which a large part of the present day 
adult population could easily pass. 

Science buffs will not be the only 
passengers considered for the role of 
payload specialist. Other observers may 
include newsmen, tourists, medical pa- 
tients, artists and the President of the 
United States. 

To alert all future part-time 
astronauts, NASA plans to publish an 
"Announcement of Opportunity" for 
each Space Shuttle mission, several 
years prior to that particular flight. It 
will also serve to detail the instrumenta- 
tion to be available on that mission, as 
well as ask for any ideas as far as addi- 
tional instruments and experiments are 
concerned. On some missions, such as 
routine satellite launchings and the like, 
NASA will offer seats on a "space 
available" basis, which will not in- 
terfere with the primary mission. In all 
cases, it's up to the would-be payload 
specialist to watch out for any and all 
opportunities and then go after them 
with glee. 

But just what are the particulars in- 
volved in actually being chosen for a 
Space Shuttle jaunt as a specialist? 
Well, NASA itself determines what type 
of experiments will be conducted on 
each mission. Once that is done, the 
principal scientists involved form a 
panel which'picks the appropriate free- 
lance astronauts from matching fields. 
NASA still hasn't come up with a 
method for picking the "space 

(Continued on page 62) 

- . — ___ — . — . — 





NASA and the European Space Agen- 
cy have Completed a ten-day simulation 
of a 1980's Spacelab mission using the 
Galileo II (a Convair 990 four-jet 
transport aircraft). The jet is equipped 
with Spacelab hardware, experiments 
and a mobile van to provide living 
quarters and permit the crew to be 
isolated as they would be on a space 

The mission, called ASSESS II (Air- 
borne Science/Spacelab Experiment 
System Simulation) involved a mission 
specialist and four payload specialists 
(two from ESA and two from NASA) 
who were isolated within the aircraft 
and van for ten days. 

Objectives of the simulation, in addi- 
tion to obtaining basic scientific in- 
formation, include evaluation of man- 
agement of payload and mission opera- 
tions for the development of low cost 
concepts for Spacelab. A further objec- 
tive is to evaluate a plan to include use 
of principal investigators as payload 

The Galileo II, on which the ASSESS 
II mission was flown,is a sophisticated 
flying laboratory used by NASA for a 
variety of scientific missions. The air- 
craft made six-hour flights on each of 
the ten days of the simulation. The 
payload and mission specialists remain- 
ed confined throughout the ten-day 
period to work on the experiment 
payload and slept in adjacent living 

Six simulated Spacelab missions have 
been conducted since the program began 
in 1972 — each mission designed to eval- 
uate potential Shuttle-Spacelab concepts 
in increasing detail. ASSESS II is the 
second mission to use the Galileo flying 
laboratory. The first, ASSESS I, was 
conducted jointly with ESA in June 
1975 and involved five data flights over 
a six-day confinement period. 

ASSESS II is a joinJ effort by NASA 
and ESA. Of the ten instrument pack- 
ages, five are furnished by ESA and five 
are furnished by NASA. The experi- 
ments are generally in the fields of Earth 
resources, atmospheric pollution 

Spacelab mock-up at the European Space and 
Technology Centre, Moordwijk, Nedertand. 
ESA is now developing a new Spacelab to be 
used in joint missions with the United States. 

monitoring and infrared astronomy . 

Astronaut Karl Henize of Johnson 
Space Center served as mission special- 
ist for this simulation. His duties includ- 
ed controlling and monitoring aircraft 
(spacecraft) experiment support 
systems, coordinating activities of the 
payload specialists and providing inter- 
face between payload specialists and the 
Galileo flight crew. 

The Galileo was put on exhibit at 
the Paris-Air Show. Following the air 
show, Galileo II will be flown to Col- 
ogne, Germany, where the ESA experi- 
ments will be removed. 


See-Threepio (left) and Artoo- Detoo are essential, major 
characters — if not the outright heroes — of the produc- 
tion. Movie-magic and real robotics are skillfully blend- 
ed to present totally believable "thinking machines." 


STARLOG continues its coverage of the most glorious space 
fantasy ever conceived and realized on the screen. Star Wars is 
destined to become the definitive film of the genre: all SF movies 
that follow it will unavoidably be compared with Wars. The work 
that went into the making of this cine-magic is staggering. Over 
seventy people are listed in the "Miniature and Optical Effects" 
credits for the film: hundreds more added their behind-the-camera 
expertise to the production. We salute these unseen craftsmen and 
their incredible achievement. Here we present the on-screen heroes 
of the ultimate experience for all SF and movie fans. Star Wars. 

Luke Skywalker is Mark Ptamill's first important Alec Guinness is a true giant of the silver 

screen role. But he felt right at home— Mark screen. Impressed by his professionalism, 

has been a science-fiction fan for years. Now George Lucas allowed him to improvise some 

he finds himself the object of fan adoration. of the diolog as the production moved along. 

Harrison Ward (Han Solo) readies one of the 
deadly-looking hand weapons used in the film. 
To insure their authenticity, real English 
pistols were "dressed-up" and utilized. 

Peter dishing (Grand Moff Tarkin) 

Peter Mayhew smiles for the camera Carrie Fisher (Princess Leia) is Peter dishing (Grand Moff Te 

dressed as Chewbacca, the Wookie. another relative unknown chosen plays his evil character to the 

The credit for Chewie's appearance by George Lucas. That status will hilt. Star Wars is quite a step 

goes to makeup man Stuart Freeborn, quickly change' after this role. up from the "B" horror flicks. 

That s actor David Prowse in the 
Darth Vader costume. It was de- 
signed to make him appear as in- 
human as possible; and it does. 


i' ■*■&'( 



Above: Ben Kenobi, Luke, Artoo-Detoo and See-Three- 

pio discover the remains of a Stormtrooper attack 

on a Sandcrawler and its inhabitants. Special 

effects pervade every aspect of the film and they 

are extremely effective. The hovercraft "hovers," 

the 'droids are obviously non-human, autonomous 

machines. The space battles have to be seen to be believed. 


*_j. .** *. ■ * . j**" . 


■ ...•>". - :- 5 


r-TTf* "t 


The opposing forces in the movie are clearly drawn — 

there is no doubt as to who are the "good guys" and who 

are the "bad guys." Witness Luke Skywalker (above); 

the picture of teenage innocence. Compare him with the troops 

of the Empire (right); intimidating, inhuman Stormtroopers. 





Saturday morning science fiction has come 
a long way since the rayguns and rockets of 
Flash Gordon, but it still retains the essence: 
lots of action and human drama. One of the 
current successes is Ark II, a "post-holo- 
caust" series following the exploits of a 
group dedicated to re-civilizing what remains 
of humanity. The late, lamented Planet of 
The Apes (inset) was an animated series based 
on the movie classic. Captain Marvel is part 
of the Shazam/lsis Hour— a superhero fantasy. 

Photo: CBS 

Once a week the youth of America join in a massive 

orgy of imaginative adventures while their 

parents close the door and (in most cases) look 

the other way . . . 



During the decades 
of the 30s and 40s and into the 50s, 
Saturday morning was a special time for 
children. Unbridled fantasy ran ram- 
pant throughout the country on the 
screens of local movie houses. This 
phenomena was called "Kiddie Mat- 
inee." It was the time when you could 
see the latest adventures of Flash Gor- 
don, Buck Rogers, Superman, Com- 
mando Cody, or even Captain Marvel. 
It was also the ideal time for parents to 
catch up on their sleep, clean up the 
house, chat on the phone, and generally 
have a rest from the noise and activity 
that is usually associated with children. 
Then, with the development of com- 

mercial TV broadcasting in the 50s, kids 
found that they could stay at home for 
their weekend treat. Many of the early 
kid shows stuck with a formula that had 
already been proven successful — they 
ran weekly episodes of the movie 
serials! Many of them were fantasy or 
science -fiction- oriented, and they set the 
tone for weekend entertainment in the 
following decades. 

It wasn't until the early 60s that TV 
networks began producing new fantasy 
series for Saturday A.M. showing. 
When they did, they combined the per- 
fect technique for giving the imagina- 
tion free reign with "space-age" 
themes, and animated science fantasy 
came into its own. 

1964 saw the release of Space Angel, 

an intriguing, serialized space opera. 
Produced by TV Comic Strips, Inc.,- 
Space Angel utilized Syncro-Vox, a pro- 
cess in which human lips are superim- 
posed over animated characters. 

Another 60s Saturday cartoon was 
Richard Ullman's Colonel Bleep, 
originally produced in 1957. Other 
similarly syndicated 50s shows included 
Johnny Jupiter and Captain Z-ro. 

In 1963, Japan's Mushi Productions 
aired Astro Boy on national weekend 
television in association with NBC. The 
series detailed the adventures of a 
robotic boy and in later episodes, his 
specially-designed robot sister. Mushi 
Productions was also responsible for 
many other TV cartoons. They pro- 
duced Eighth Man, Gigantor, Jet Boy, 


Above: Three famous horror figures played 
strictly for laughs on The Monster Squad. 
Top right: Kathy Coleman and Wesley Eure sur- 
vey their Land of the Lost, which features 
superior special effects. Bottom right: 
Joanna Cameron as the goddess Isis, as popu- 
lar a video superheroine as Wonder Woman. 

Photo: CBS 


to the following people who supplied 
information and materials for STARLOG's 
Show Guide to Saturday Morning TV: Janet 
Storm and CBS-TV; Dom Giofre'and NBC- 
TV; Vic Ghidalia and ABC-TV; Malcolm Klein 
and Filmation Assoc; Susan Devaneyand 
Hanna-Barbera Productions; Sid and Marty 
Krofft Productions; Constance Martel and 
American International Television; Sibyl 
Roberts and Soltersand Roskin; Independent 
Television Corporation; and Tom Rogers. 
The author would like to extend special 
appreciation to Mr. Jerry Beck whose 
research assistance was invaluable. 

Johnny Sokko and His Flying Robot, 
Kimba, the White Lion, Prince Planet, 
Sollan — Boy From Outer Space, and 
Speed Racer, in association with Osamu 

NBC's 1963 schedule also debuted 
ITC's Fireball XL-5. Produced by 
Gerry and Sylvia Anderson (U.F.O., 
Space: 1999), this Saturday morning 
show centered around the Galaxy Pa- 
trol's "Space City" headquarters where 
a futuristic police force protected the 
solar system from enemies trying to 
destroy the peaceful status quo. Fireball 
XL-5 was shot in Supermarionation, a 
technique pioneered by the Andersons 

Below: a ce! from the Star Trek animated 
episode, "The Ambergris Element." Although 
it was produced in "cartoon" form, this 
series offered some of the most sophisti- 
cated science fiction ever put on television. 
Many of the creative people who worked on the 
live-action show also worked on this one. 

for working with marionettes. This in- 
volves a computer to synchronize the 
moving mouth of a puppet, plus com- 
puter commands to work the strings of 
the puppet while the humans sit back 
and watch. Other Supermarionation 
shows which sometimes appeared dur- 
ing the early weekend hours were Super- 
car, Stingray, Thunderbirds, and Cap- 
tain Scarlet and the Mystereons. 

The mid/late 60s witnessed a boom in 
superhero cartoons, partially prompted 
by ABC's successful live-action Batman 
series. Oscar-winners William Hanna 
and Joseph Barbera led this profitable 
wave with several sporadically viable 
science-fiction adventures. Some of 
their more popular entries included 
Atom Ant, Birdman, Dino Boy, The 
Fantastic Four, Frankenstein, Jr. and 
the Impossibles, The Galaxy Trio, The 
Herculoids, Johnny Quest, The Mighty 
Mightor, Moby Dick, Shazam, Space 
Ghost, and Space Kiddettes. 

Many other 60s SF-oriented shows 
enjoyed Saturday morning exposure. 
They included The Adventures of Sin- 
bad Jr., The Adventures of Tin Tin, 
Batfink, Courageous Cat and Minute 
Mouse, Do Do — The Kid From Outer 
Space, Johnny Cypher in Dimension 
Zero, Journey to the Center of the 
Earth, King Kong, Marine Boy, Marvel 
Superheroes, The Mighty Heroes, Rod 

Rocket, Roger Ramjet, Samson and 
Goliath, Spiderman, Super President, 
and Ultraman. 

By 1968, various activist groups were 
insisting that "excessive violence" per- 
vaded Saturday morning television. 
This resulted in the 70s plethora of in- 
ane A.M. weekend programming, made 
"safe" for children. 

The forerunner of these series, 1969's 
H.R. Pufnstuf, was actually quite good. 
Produced by master showmen Sid and 
Marty Krofft, Pufnstuf lasted three 
years. Its success spawned the Krofft's 
other children's vehicles: The Bugaloos, 
Lidsville, and Sigmund and the Sea 

Filmation Associates also provided 
pleasant weekend fantasies. Headed by 
Emmy Award-winners Norm Prescott 
and Lou Scheimer, they produced the 
60s' Fantastic Voyage, Aquaman, Bat- 
man, and Superman cartoons. More 
recently, they were responsible for the 
animated Star Trek (see STARLOG No. 
6) and My Favorite Martian . 

The 70s have already seen an abun- 
dance of Saturday morning science fic- 
tion. The networks have given us The 
Addams Family (cartoon), Ghost 
Busters, Josie and the Pussycats in 
Outer Space, Korg: 70,000 B.C., an 
animated Lost in Space film, Mission: 
Magic, Partridge Family 2200 A.D., 

Speed Buggy, Valley of the Dinosaurs, 
and Return to the Planet of the Apes. 

Science- fiction-oriented live-action 
and animated shows now dominate Sat- 
urday morning TV viewing. Here is a 
typical listing, taken from TV Guide, 
for the morning of April 30th, a Satur- 

9:00— Channel 2 has Scooby-Doo 
and Dynomutt; Channel 11 has Star 
Trek (animated). 10:00— Channel 2 has 
Tarzan (animated), Channel 9 has The 
Invisible Man Returns (film), Channel 
11 has Batman (live-action). 10:30— 
Channel 2 has Batman (animated), 
Channel 4 has Monster Squad, Channel 
7 has Krofft Supershow. 11:00 — 
Channel 2 has Shazam /Is is, Channel 4 
has Space Ghost, Frankenstein, Jr. 
11:30— Channel 4 has Big John, Little 
John. 12:00— Channel 4 has Land of 
the Lost. 1 2:30— Channel 2 has Ark II. 

The science-fiction/fantasy program- 
ming doesn't stop there, but the morn- 
ing does. 

Saturdays are again the home of un- 
bridled fantasy entertainment. The only 
difference is that now some parents who 
grew up on Kiddie Matinees have be- 
come early risers, too, knowing that 
even in adulthood they can follow the 
latest adventures of their favorite 
heroes — from the comfort of their own 
beds. -JL- 

Science Fiction 


All ships listed are in 1/4800 scale unless noted 


From GAMESCIENCE— plastic spaceships 

with stands included: 

GS-1 Federation Scout $2.00 

GS-2 Federation Destroyer $2.00 

GS-3 Federation Heavy Cruiser $2.00 

GS-4 Federation Dreadnaught $2.50 

— metal spaceships, stands, separate except 
where indicated otherwise: 

WA-1 FEDERATION Hvy Cruiser $2.25 

WA-2 Fed. Recharge Cruiser $2.25 

WA-3 Fed. Light Cruiser $2.25 

WA-4 Fed. Battleship $2.50 

WA-5 Fed. Shuttlecraft $1 .50 

[WA-5 has stand and is 1/400 scale] 

WA-10 KLINGON Battle Cruiser $2.25 

WA-1 1 Klgn. Light Cruiser $2.25 

WA-12 Klgn. Destroyer $2.25 

WA- 13 Klgn. Recharge Cruiser $2.25 

WA-14 Klgn. Battleship $2.50 

WA-1 5 Klgn. Tug $2.50 

WA-20 THOLIAN Battle Cruiser $2.25 

WA-21 Thin. Light Cruiser $2.25 

WA-22 Thin. Recharge Cruiser $2.25 

WA-23 Thin. Scouts (4) $1.00 

WA-24 Thin. Battleship $2.50 

WA-30 E'CKOR Battleships $2.25 

WA-31 E'ckor Light Cruiser $2.25 

WA-40 GORN Raider $2.25 

WA-41 Gorn Marauder $3.50 

WA-50 ROMULAN Heavy Cruiser $2.25 


Federation Class Starship 

WA-51 ROMULAN Scout \ . . $2.25 

WA-52 Romln. Destroyer $2.25 

WA-53Romln. Bird of Prey Marauder .. $2.25 

WA-60 ZELLTHON Scout $2.00 

WA-61 Zlthn. Destroyer $2.25 

WA-62 Zlthn. Heavy Cruiser $3.00 

WA-63 Zlthn. Battle Cruiser $5.00 

WA-64 Zlthn. Battleship $10.00 

WA-70 DOMAN Man of War $3.50 

WA- 1 000 Large Stand [for all but WA-5 and 

WA-23] $.50 

WA-1 001 Small Stand [comes with WA-5, 

you need 4 for WA-23] $.15 

Stands are metal bases and lucite rods. 
WA-2000 Game rules with three ships and 
stands [WA-1 . WA-10, & 1 Tholian 

Scout] $9.00 

Prices above are for each single ship unless 
noted otherwise in (). 

Catalog of'over 10,000 miniatures from 100 dif- 
ferent manufacturers covering fantasy, sword & 
sorcery, science-fiction, historical personae 
and military from ancient to modern in scales 
ranging from 200mm (1/9) to .5mm (1/4800) 
$2.50 [refundable off purchases — refund in- 
structions included]. Also included in the 
catalog are accessories and games. 
From VALIANT MINIATURES— metal space- 
ships: stands are separate: 

VTSD-1 "Intruder" IID Scout (9) $3.00 

VTSD-2 •Vigilante'.' Interceptor (6) $3.00 

VTSD-3 -Phantom" Assault ship (4) ... $3.00 
VTSD-4 ALIEN "Banshee" Set. (6) .... $3.00 

VTSD-5 ALIEN "Vampire" Intr. (4) $3.00 

VTSD-6 "Draco" els. Destroyer (2) .... $3.00 
VTSD-7 "Aries" els. Escort Cruiser .... $3.00 

VTSD-8 "Perseus" els. Cruiser $3.00 

VTSD-9 "Orion" els. Hvy. Cruiser $4.50 

VTSD-10 ALIEN "Sadr" class Destroyer 

(2) $3.00 

VTSD-1 1 ALIEN -Phardos" class Escort 

Cruiser (2) $3.00 

VTSD-12 ALIEN -Mirazh" class Battle 

Cruiser $3.00 

VTSD-13 ALIEN "Merak" class Heavy Battle 

Cruiser $3.50 

VTSD- 14 Small Stands [SD-1-5] (9) ... $3.00 
VTSD-15LargeStands[SD-6-13](6) .. $3.00 

Number in () is no. items in packet. Add $.50 
postage per order. Illinois residents add 5% 
sales tax. Order from: 



Circle catalog number of each miniature de- 



City _ 




Saturday Morning Science Fiction, 


Format: Half-hour live-action science- 
fiction adventure series 
Story Situation: The efforts of a group of 
young people seeking to reestablish 
civilization in a world destroyed by atomic 
war, hundreds of years in the future. 
Stars: Terry Lester (Jonah), Jean Marie 
Hon (Ruth), Jose Flores (Samuel) Adam 
(the mutated chimpanzee) 
Produced By: Filmation Associates 
Executive Producers: Lou Scheimer, Norm 

Producer: Richard Rosenbloom 
Created By: Martin Roth 
Director of Photography: Robert F. Sparks 
Music and Sound Effects: Horta-Mahana 
Electronic Special Effects: Sonex 

"Ark II" and "Ark Roamer" 
Vehicles Designed By: The Brubaker 

Jet Jumper Designed By: Nelson Tyler 
Art Director: Michael Baugh 
Directors: Ted Post, Hollingsworth Morse 
Writers: Martin Roth, Robert Specht, Ben 
Masselink, David Dworski, Mark Jones 
and Mike Prescott, Phyllis and Bob White, 
John Ashby, Richard Carr, Peter Dixon 
Network: CBS 


Format: Half-hour live-action science- 
fiction comedy/adventure 
Story Situation: The story of two 
custodians working at NASA who 
accidentally blast off towards outer space 
in a government rocket. 
Stars: Bob Denver (Junior), Chuck 
McCann (Marty) 

Produced By: Sid and Marty Krofft 

Producers: Sid and Marty Krofft in 
association with Al Schwartz 
Associate Producer: Mary Jo Blue 
Directors: Wes Kenney, Claudio Guzman 
Writers: Chuck McCann, Earle Doud, and 

Art Director: Herman Zimmerman 
Network: CBS 


Format: A live-action 90-minute comedy- 
adventure series comprised of four 
segments: "Dr. Shrinker;" 
"Electrawoman;" "Wonderbug;" and 
"The Lost Saucer." Kaptain Kool and the 
Kongs perform comedy sketches and 
songs especially written for them by the 
Osmonds to tie ihe program together and 
introduce each segment. 
Production Company: Sid and Marty Krofft 

Executive Producers: Sid and Marty Krofft 
Network: ABC 


Story Situation: A serialized story of the 

adventures of Lori and Mara, magazine 

reporters who become Electrawoman and 

Dynagirl to combat evildoers. 

Producer and Director: Walter Miller 

Stars: Deidre Hall (Electrawoman), Judy 

Strangis (Dynagirl), Norman Alden (Frank 


Story Editors: Dick Robbins and Duane 


Writers: Gerry Day, Bethel Leslie, Duane 

Poole, Dick Robbins, Greg Strangis 


Format: Half-hour live-action science- 
fiction comedy series 
Story Situation: The problems of a man 
who, after drinking from the fountain of 
youth, fluctuates between being a 45- 
year-old junior high school science 
teacher and a 12-year-old student. 
Stars: Herb Edelman (Big John), Robbie 
Rist (Little John), Joyce Bulifant, and 

Executive Producer: Sherwood Schwartz 
Producer: Lloyd Schwartz 
Director: Gordon Wiles 
Director of Photography: Alan Stensvold 
Art Director: Keaton Walker 
Props: Bill Bates 
Makeup: Ken Chase 
Sound: Bill Edmunson 
Wardrobe: Robert Tuturice 
Writers: Various 

Created By: Sherwood and Lloyd 

Producers: A D'Angelo/Bullock/Allen 
Production in association with Redwood 
Network: NBC 


Story Situation: A comedy-adventure 
about three youngsters who are 
miniaturized by a likeable villain (Dr. 

Producer and Director: Jack Regas 
Stars: Jay Robinson (Dr. Shrinker), Billy 
Barty (Hugo), Susan Lawrence (B.J.)., 
Ted EccIbs, Jeff MacKay 
Story Consultant: Donald Boyle 
Writers: Donald Boyle, Ed Jurist, Bernie 
Kahn, Leo Rlfkin, SI Rose, Greg Strangis 


Story Situation: A comedy-adventure 

about three teenagers and their magical 

car, Wonderbug. 

Producer and Director: Al Schwartz 

Stars: David Levy (Barry), Carol Ann 

Sefflinger (Susan), John Anthony Bailey 


Script Supervisors: Dick Robbins and 

Duane Pool 

Writers: Jim Brochu, Earle Doud, Mark 

Fink, Fred S. Fox, Seaman Jacobs, Lee 

Maddux, Chuck McCann, Jack 

Mendelsohn, Duane Poole, Dick Robbins 


Format: Half-hour live action science 
fiction adventure series 
Story Situation: While on a routine river 
trip, forest ranger Rick Marshall, his 
teenage son Will, and daughter Holly 
plunge down a waterfall, through a time 
vortex, and onto a prehistoric, lost 
continent. Third season: A super tremor 
severly shakes the alternate universe and 
swallows up Rick Marshall. At the same 
time, uncle Jack Marshall, an engineer 
who has been tracking his kin, drops into 
the lost land. 

Stars: Spencer Milligan (Rick Marshall), 
Wesley Eure (Will), Kathy Coleman 
(Holly), Ron Harper (Jack Marshall) 
Executive Producers: Sid and Marty Krofft 
Created By: Sid and Marty Krofft 
Producer: Jon Kubichan 
Associate Producer: Jim Washburn 
Story Editors: Daivd Gerrold (First 
season), Sam Roeca 
Art Director: Herman Zimmerman 
Stop-Motion Animation Directed By: Gene 

Music By: Larry Neiman and Jack Tillar 
Lighting Design By: Greg Brunton 
Writers: David Gerrold, Margaret Armen, 
Larry Niven, Norman Spinrad, Walter 
Koenlg, Dick Morgan, Wina Sturgeon, 
Barry Blitzer, Ben Bova, Joyce Perry, D.C. 
Fontana, others 
Network: NBC 


Story Situation: Space comedy about two 

androids, Fi and Fum, who land on Earth, 

1975, and invite a young boy and his 

babysitter aboard, resulting in a trip 

through a time warp into civilizations of 

the future. 

Produced By: Sid and Marty Krofft 

Executive Producer: Si Rose 

Stars: Jim Nabors (Fum), Ruth Buzzi (Fi), 

Alice Playten (Alice), Jarrod Johnson 


Associate Producer: Barbara Searles 

Special Effects By: Gordon Graff 

Costume Design By: Jeremy Railton 

Art Director: Tom Azzari 

Lighting Director: Steve Burum 


Fantasy & Superheroes Kid- Vid 


Format: Half-hour live-action 
comedy/adventure series 
Story Situation: Dracula, Frankenstein, 
and Bruce Wolfman form a crime-fighting 
squad under the direction of a young 
criminologist, Walt, who is working his 
way through college as night watchman at 
a wax museum. Walt has perfected a 
device which brings the monsters to life. 
Stars: Henry Polic II (Dracula), Michael 
Lane (Frankenstein), Buck Kartalian 
(Bruce Wolfman), Fred Grandy (Walt) 
Executive Producers: Bill D'Angelo, 
Harvey Bullock, Ray Allen 
Producer: Micheal McLean 
Story Editor: Stanley Ralph Ross 
Director of Photography: Alan Stensvold 
Art Director: Keaton Walker 
Music: Dick LaSalle 
Make-Up: Ken Chase 
Production: D'Angelo/Bullock/Allen 
Productions in association with NBC-TV 
Directors: Herman Hoffman, Bill D'Angelo 
and others 
Writers: Various 
Network: NBC 


Format: Half-hour animated adventure 


Story Situation: Aided by the mischievous 

Batmite, Batman and Robin (and 

occasionally Batgirl), combat evildoers like 

Joker, Riddler, Cat Woman, Penguin, and 


Producers: Filmation Associates 

Executive Producers: Norm Prescott and 

Lou Scheimer 

Produced By: Don Christensen 

Voices: Adam West, Burt Ward, Lennie 

Weinrib, Melendy Britt 

Supervising Director: Don Towsley 

Animation Directors: Rudy Larriva, Lou 

Zukor, Gwen Wetzler 

Art Directors: Herb Hazeiton, Alberto De 


Story board Director: Bob Kline 

Director of Color: Ervin Kaplan 

Music and Sound Effects: Horta-Mahana 

Writers: Chuck Menville, Len Janson, Bill 

Danch, Jim Ryan, Mark Fink, Arthur 


Network: CBS 


Format: A 60-minute comedy/adventure 

series comprised of three animated 

segments: "Scooby-Doo, Where Are 

You?"; "Scooby-Doo"; and "Dynomutt, 

Dog Wonder". 

Story Situation: "Scooby-Doo, Where Are 

You?": Four youngsters and their dog 

Scooby-Doo attempt to solve mysteries. 

"Scooby-Doo": Scooby-Doo is aided by 

his canine friends Scooby Dee and Scooby 

Dum in helping four youngsters who 

attempt to solve mysteries. 

"Dynomutt, Dog Wonder": Dynomutt is a 

robot dog wonder and faithful companion 

to the Blue Falcon, champion of law and 


Producers: Hanna-Barbera Productions 

Executive Producers: William Hanna, 

Joseph Barbara 

Director: Charles Nichols 

Voices: Don Messick, Frank Welkar, 

Heather North, Casey Kaseem, Nicole 

Jaffe, others 

Network: ABC 


Format: 60-minute live-action adventure 
series comprised of two segments: 
"Shazam!" and "Isis". 
Produced By: Filmation Associates 
Executive Producers:Norm Prescott, Lou 
Scheimer, Richard Rosenbloom 
Producer: Arthur H. Nadel 
Creative Director: Don Christensen 
Director of Photography: Robert F. Sparks 
Music and Sound Effects: Horta-Mahana 
Network: CBS 


Story Situation: The exploits of superhero 

Captain Marvel and his alter ego, Billy 


Stars: Micheal Gray (Billy Batson), Les 

Tremayne (Mr. Mentor), Jackson 

Bostwick (Captain Marvel, rebroadcasts), 

John Davey (Captain Marvel, hew 


Directors: Hollingsworth Morse, John 

Peyser, Henry J. Lange, Jr., and others 

Writers: J. Michael Reaves, Ray 

Goldstone, Arthur Nadel, Susan Dworski, 

Len Janson, Paolo Orsini, and others 


Story Situation: The exploits of 

superheroine isis and her alter ego, 

Andrea Thomas. 

Stars: JoAnna Cameron (Isis), Brian 

Cutler (Rick Mason), Joanna Pang (Cindy 

Lee, rebroadcasts), Ronalda Douglas 


Created By: Marc Richards 

Directors: Earl Bellamy, Hollingsworth 

Morse, Arthur Nadel, and others 

Writers: Peter L. Dixon, Sarah Dixon, Sid 

Morse, Arthur Nadel, Norman Cameron, 

Ann Udell, Len Janson, Chuck Menville, 

and others 

Electronic Special Effects: Sonex 





i ^ } Jiff 

i ...-- " 

"~ . * ~"-"-~^_ * *- \ 


Format: 60-minute animated adventure 


Story Situation: Aided by two teenaged 

assistants and their dog— Wendy, Marvin, 

and Wonderdog— Superman, 

Wonderwoman, Batman and Robin, and 

Aquaman form an indestructible group of 

crusaders against the forces of evil. They 

operate out of the Hall of Justice in 

Washington, DC. 

Producers: Hanna-Barbera Productions 

Executive Producers: William Hanna, 

Joseph Barbara 

Voices: Danny Dark (Superman), Olan 

Soule (Batman), Casey Kasem (Robin), 

Shannon Farnon (Wonderwoman), Norman 

Alden (Aquaman), Sherri Alberroni 

(Wendy), Frank Welker (Marvin, 


Music: Hoyt Curtin, Paul DeKorte 

Network: ABC 


Format: Half-hour animated adventure 
series comprised of two "Space Ghost" 
segments and one "Frankenstein, Jr." 

Story Situation: "Space Ghost": The 
exploits of Space Ghost, an interplanetary 
crime fighter, and his teenage wards Jace 
and Jan, and their pet space monkey, 
Blip. Through the use of a magic belt, 
Space Ghost receives the gift of 

"Frankenstein, Jr.": Frankenstein, Jr. is 
a thirty-foot mechanical man built by 
Buzz, a boy-scientist, who is advanced 
far beyond his age by the knowledge 
taught him by his scientist father. The trio 
finds adventure while battling secret 
agents from foreign powers. 
Producers: Hanna-Barbera Productions 
Executive Producers: William Hanna, 
Joseph Barbara 

Voices: Gary Owens (Space Ghost), Ginny 
Tyler (Jan), Tim Matthieson (Jayce), Ted 
Cassidy (Frankenstein, Jr.), Dick Beats 
(Buzz), John Stephenson (Father) 
Music: Hoyt Curtin 
Network: NBC 


(Continued from page 27) 

say across the board, what would he do? 

"I couldn't have told you two days 
ago but I can now because I'm going to 
do it with the CBC. I would like to put 
on a half-hour show of me reading my 
stories. That's all." But by this time I 
had learned enough from listening to 
Harlan to know that this couldn't be all. 
I asked him to elaborate — and of course 
he did. 

"There'd be an empty limbo set, with 
maybe some pools of color and some 
mist drifting across it, and I would 
use — in honor of a radio program that 
influenced me profoundly when I was a 
kid— Wyllis Cooper's Quiet, Please. It 
would be dark and you'd see me stand- 
ing by a music stand, way down there, 
and a voice would come on and say 
'QUIET, PLEASE.' (Softer, now) 
'Quiet, please.' The second movement 
of Dvorak's second symphony would 
cut in and the camera would come to me 
and I'd say: 'Close your eyes and watch 
your television set — and let your mind 
work. I want to tell you a story. . . .' 
And then I'd begin reading a story. I'd 
write a new half-hour story for each 
show." If the CBC pilot goes well, 
Harlan has a chance to actually make 
this dream come true. Whether or not it 
would be shown on American TV is a 

"... I no longer feel that I can 
be part of an organization that has 
a death wish this strong. Therefore, 
I am resigning from SFWA. Don't 
call me anymore, because I ain't 
your Hollywood liaison anymore. 
I'm going to move off and I'm . 
going to do my number there and 
I'm going to get fat and I'm going 
to get rich and I'm going to 
England twice a year. And the rest 
of you people are going to be 
wearing 1940s clothes and (think 
you are) living in Valhalla because 
you go to a convention and some 
terminal acne case comes up and 
strokes you. My resignation will be 
in the mail and I expect a refund 
on the balance of my dues. This is 
the last time I'll be here to mess up 
an SFWA function." 

question for the future. 

But now, having spent a fascinating 
afternoon-into-night being alternately 
amused and amazed, it was time to 
leave. Harlan had to prepare for his 
evening's activities as well as his speech 
to the SFWA the following afternoon. 
In that speech he would announce his 
resignation from the writers' group. 
And true to form, he would pull no 
punches. He chastised his fellow 
members for allowing themselves to be 
used, abused, and generally ignored by 
the giants of the entertainment industry: 
movies and TV. 

It was an angry, moving and even in- 
spiring speech; three elements that are 
inherent in all of Harlan's expositions. 
For first and foremost, Harlan Ellison 
is a gifted storyteller and truth-sayer. 
Everything he does, he approaches with 
that same burning passion, whether it's 
a college lecture, a record album, a 
comic book, or a resignation speech 
before an assembly of his respected 
peers. Harlan attacks life and loves it to 
his fullest potential — he knows of no 
other way to live. 

He is a troublemaker because he 
refuses to ignore problems. His is the 
voice of society's conscience. For this 
very reason, controversy is destined to 
follow — and precede — him throughout 
his life; and one feels Harlan wouldn't 
want it any other way. -JL- 

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Model Animation 


Photos: © 1975 Excelsior Animated Moving Pictures 

Above: A corner of Gene Warren's studio, 
Excelsior Animated Moving Pictures, is 
rigged with table top sets for NBC's Land 
of the Lost. Right: Dopey, one of the 
series "stars," receives his direction 
from the hand of the master on one of 
Gene's stunning miniature-scaled sets. 

This is the third part in STARLOG'S feature 
series on Special Effects. Part I— The Use 
of Miniatures appeared in issue No. 6. Part 
II — Robby the Robot appeared in No. 7. 


Dinosaurs & Harry Houdini 

The year was 1922. The world was 
much larger then. It took three days at 
best to travel across the continental 
United States. Deepest Africa was still 
the continent of mystery, a vast blank 
on the map marked: unexplored. And 
magic was still alive. 

Indicative of the times was the fad of 
spiritualism, one of the leading pro- 
ponents of which was Sir Arthur Conan 
Doyle. He had dedicated his life (apart 
from his writing) to establishing the 
"reality of the spiritual world." 

Sir Arthur's archenemy in this respect 
was the world-famous Harry Houdini, 
who had dedicated his life (apart from 
magic) to unmasking mediums and ex- 
posing phoney seances — which then 
were all the rage. 

In June of 1922 Houdini invited Sir 
Arthur to a meeting of the Society of 
American Magicians. Sir Arthur, who 
had been needled many times for his 
beliefs in psychic phenomena, saw a 
chance to pay back his adversaries. Sir 
Arthur had sold the film rights to his 
novel, The Lost World. A relatively 
unknown special-effects artist by the 
name of Willis O'Brien had completed a 
test reel for Lost World — several se- 
quences of dinosaurs fighting in a lush 
prehistoric setting. 

So on that warm summer evening, 
back in '22, Sir Arthur set off with the 
test reel under his arm, confident that he 
would be able to pull off a little magic 
of his own before an assembly of the 
world's greatest magicians. 

If Sir Arthur planned to create a little 
stir among his adversaries that night, he 

erred; pandemonium resulted. 

The following morning the headlines 
of the N . Y . Times proclaimed : 


Spiritist Mystifies World-Famed 
Magician With Pictures of 
Prehistoric Beasts!! 

Keeps Origin a Secret . . . 

Monsters of Other Ages Shown — 
Some Fighting, Some At Play 
In Their Native Jungles. 

Aside from some early pioneering ef- 
forts by George Melies and a few others, 
model animation as a cinematic tech- 
nique was virtually unknown. The Lost 
World made its debut in 1925 and is 
generally credited as the first feature to 
depend on model animation. King Kong 
in 1933, the classic tour deforce of the 
process, established Willis O'Brien as 
the reigning god of the technique that he 
had fathered. 

The Illusion Is In The Model 

Model animation, according to Ray 
Harryhausen (O'Brien's assistant in his 
later years and current master of the 
field) is: "Basically three dimensional, 
stop-motion photography — single 
frame work. Stop-motion photography 
involves beginning with a series of still 
pictures photographed individually and 
progresses to the illusion of movement. 
Lifelike figures are built and their move- 
ment minutely choreographed and syn- 
chronized into the film." 

The use of the term "three dimen- 
sional" refers to the models being 

Preproduction Artwork 

After these sketches are approved by 
the producer, the general "look" and 
visual mood of the film will have been 
determined. The sketches will be re- 
ferred to time and time again by the pro- 
duction team during the next stages of 
production so that the visual concept 
they represent is not deviated from. 
(Such sketches are as visually stunning 
and dramatic as possible since the pro- 
ducer will also be using them to raise 
money for the project.) 

From this preproduction artwork, the 
art director produces a series of con- 
tinuity drawings and the model 
animator produces a series of model 
sheets or a "sketch" in clay. Sometimes 
these tasks are handled by the same man 
(Ray Harryhausen usually does both), 
but often they are executed by different 
men in different departments of the pro- 
duction company. 

A model sheet consists of a series of 
drawings revealing the character to be 
animated in a variety of poses and 
moods. These detailed illustrations 
determine how the model will move as a 
character — how he expresses himself 
physically and the range of movements 
involved. The model sheet is similar in 
principle to the model sheets used for eel 
animation in a cartoon. 

Continuity sketches are a series of 
drawings for each scene in the film and 
very often for each camera shot. Con- 
tinuity sketches show what action is to 
be filmed; what part of the shot will be 
live action or model animation; what 
part of the shot will be full size or 
miniature; what process(es) will be used 
to achieve the shot: traveling matte, 
perspective shot, glass shot, rear screen, 

The importance of complete continui- 
ty sketches cannot be overemphasized 
for the success of a production that in- 
volves extensive special-effects work. 
Weeks, months, and sometimes years 
will separate the filming of the live ac- 
tion from the special effects that must 
be created. Such sketches tell the actors 
and the director what is expected of 
them in any given scene, since the 
"giant crab," "raging dinosaur," or 
"tiny princess" isn't there for the actors 
to play off of when the scene is being 
filmed. In addition, such sketches 
enable the production manager and pro- 
ducers to construct an accurate budget, 
draw up a production schedule, and 
know in advance what equipment will 
be necessary for any given shot. 

First Things First: The Skeleton 

Generally speaking, after the con- 
tinuity sketches and model sheets have 
been completed, the first rough three- 

dimensional model is sculpted in clay. 
After approval (perhaps after a single 
generation, though sometimes many) a 
skeletal structure is designed and con- 
structed, usually of ball-joint sockets 
and in metal. Interestingly, many 
models of the 30's were carved from 
wood with jointed arms and legs. Some 
of Mr. Harryhausen 's earliest models 
were constructed of wooden-jointed ar- 
matures, with swatches of his mother's 
fur coat to finish the exterior of his first 

Nowadays armatures are almost 
always constructed of metal for strength 
and ball-socket jointed for realism — 
though some parts may simply have a 
wire core which may be bent into 
whatever position is required. The 
degree of sophistication and amount of 
engineering time spent on the skeletal 
structures is largely a function of the 
demands portrayed by the continuity 
sketches. You don't build more than 
you have to. 

The hero of Mighty Joe Young (1949) 
had an extremely dextrous skeletal 
structure (four models were produced 
for the film, each about twelve inches 
high) that was machined by Harry Cun- 
ningham. Care was taken to duplicate 
the actual skeletal joints of a live ape in 
the interests of realism. Even the joints 
in the fingers were fully articulated. 

Such care is shown to good advantage 










811' MILFORD ST. - 
GLENDALE, CA. 91203 











Photos: Courtesy Ray Harryhausen 




- - ';\ 

• mt& '"- 






W, / r 

rtffSfit *v* 5c. /vo >y*- sc"/va - /is--wz -me. 

Top: Pre-production art 
for Ray Harryhausen's 
Mysterious Island. Such 
art illustrates the mood 
and thrust of the action 
for key scenes. Above: 
This series of continui- 
ty sketches for the crab 
sequence breaks the action 
down shot for shot, show- 
ing how each shot within 
a sequence is achieved. 
Right: Final shot should 
achieve the "look" sug- 
gested in the original 
pre-production artwork. 

in many sequences, often with comical, 
though wholly appropriate, results. 
Near the end of the film, just before the 
famous orphanage rescue sequence, Joe, 
is being hurried away from the police by 
his rescuers. The police have a court 
order to destroy the "beast." After 
finally eluding his pursuers, Joe is 
seated on the tailgate of the truck 
watching the police cars slowly disap- 
pear into the night as the escaping truck 
speeds Joe to freedom. We see Joe smile 
and nonchalantly look around at the 
passing scenery while drumming his 
fingers on his knees. 

Oddly human, completely convinc- 
ing, and utterly delightful, that single 
shot never fails to elicit an immediate 
response from the audience. That single 
moment of Joe's cool triumph probably 
took O'Brien and his staff all day to 
film — frame by frame. 

Such convincing action depends not 
only upon a finely crafted skeleton, but 
on the "muscle and tissue" construction 
as well. Marcel Delgado built Joe up 
muscle by muscle with such elementary 
materials as cotton, liquid latex, and 
dental wax in an attempt to create the il- 
lusion of physiological reality — muscles 
that would flex and stretch on the preci- 
sion armature. 

A less time-consuming (and therefore 
money-saving) method is to create a 
mold for the clay model from which the 
latex model can be cast to fit around the 
armature in a single operation. Such 
foamed latex castings, while infinitely 
cheaper, do not produce as. realistic an 
effect as when the creature is built up 
"muscle by muscle." The choice of 
methods will be dictated by the demands 
of the script and the budget involved. 

All the time, money and effort in the 
world can be poured into the production 
of a life-like, flexible model, but unless 
it is photographed properly, in a realis- 
tic setting, all the effort has been for 

Setting The Scene 

King Kong (1933) made use of table- 
top miniatures interspersed with scenery 
painted on glass to achieve an exotic ef- 
fect of mood and depth. Such a process 
is extremely expensive in today's 
economy. The "golden age" of the big 
studios is gone and with it their lux- 
urious teams of matte artists and 
special-effects technicians. The ex- 
travagantly lush jungle, towering cliffs, 
and gorges that seem to plunge for miles 
were the careful work of Mario Lar- 
rinaga and Byron Crabbe, who produc- 
ed both the preliminary sketches and the 
final glass paintings. Sometimes as 
many as three layers of glass paintings 
which sandwiched miniature settings 
with a painted back drop at the rear 
were used to convey the pre-historic 
lushness of Skull Island. 

As mentioned in Special FX, Part I, 

Jason and the Arognauts is still Ray Harryhausen's favorite 
feature. In his quest for the golden fleece Jason battles the 
legendary Hydra. Note how the conception of the scene has been 
maintained from the pre-production art to the finished product. 

miniature settings must be photo- 
graphed from a carefully selected angle 
if they are to appear realistic. With 
tabletop settings this means the camera 
lens is only an inch or two (sometimes 
less) above the surface of the table-. The 
pamera must be positioned low enough 
for the proper scale and perspective and 
yet high enough so as not to pick up the 
edge of the table. Willis O'Brien made 
extensive use of glass paintings between 

the lens and the edge of the table. Some 
designers have built tables with sloped 

There are many solutions to any 
problem. Willis O'Brien was among the 
first to state that there were no set rules 
or methods to his art. Each situation is 
an individual problem and requires a 
fresh approach. Experience is the only 

Gene Warren, who is responsible for 

the model animation sequences on the 
TV series Land of the Lost (see page 
42), produces some of the most detailed, 
beautiful, and realistic settings for his 
models that can be seen anywhere to- 
day. Gene is able to draw upon 
materials that were not available in 
O'Brien's day — such as his extensive use 
of plastic shrubbery and foliage. 

O'Brien very often used live plants 
and materials on his sets. Sometimes 

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Below and bottom: Gene Warren's precision armatures before 
and after foamed-latex molding. Gene uses both wire core and 
ball-and-socket construction depending upon the action required. 

Top: David Allen uses a calibration device to measure the degree 
of movement between shots. Above: Miniature projection set-up 
for Flesh Gordon shows model in front of live action screen. 

their use, while imparting definite 
realism, was responsible for causing 
whole days of shooting to be junked. 

Sabotaged By A Flower 

Imagine for the moment that you are 
Willis O'Brien, working in your studio 
on an animation sequence. Let's be ex- 
pensive. You've got a tabletop minia- 
ture with painted backdrop and glass 
painting in the front to mask the table 
edge. The lights are bright and hot 
(since miniature photography demands 
enormous amounts of light), and the air 
is still (since a breeze from a fan would 
move your foliage from shot to shot and 
spoil the sequence). If all goes well to- 
day, you will get about eight feet of film 
exposed (frame by frame), which is 
about 128 frames or about 5Vi seconds 
of screen time. 

A glance at the timing sheet tells you 
that fierce tyrannosaurus "A" must 
take a bite out of dying triceratops "B." 
The models remain carefully secured in 
the positions where you left them yester- 
day. Your camera — securely mounted 
on a tripod which is bolted to the floor, 
so that it will be in precisely the same 
position from shot to shot — is racked 
over to the viewfinder so the next shot 
can be lined up. 1 Your notes from the 
previous day confirm that dinosaur 


"A" had been slowly moving in for the 
kill of dinosaur "B." Stepping around 
to the side of the table you reach behind 
the glass foreground and open dinosaur 
"A's" mouth a little wider and move 
the head a tiny fraction of an inch closer 
to the exposed body of the dying dino- 
saur "B." The electrician turns on the 
lights— the bulbs are changed daily 
before or just after a session to avoid a 
burn-out in the middle of a sequence 
that may go unnoticed, and to avoid the 
shift in color that comes as lamps slowly 
"age." It will take about four or five 
hours to expose the 128 frames and the 
color shift would not be noticed in the 
studio. On the screen, in 5 seconds, such 
a shift can be very disturbing! 2 

You have positioned the models for 
your next exposure. The camera is 
racked over back to the film plane for 
exposure. You check the lens setting and 
then hit the foot pedal which opens the 
shutter to expose your first camera 

'Many cameras used in this work have two body 
positions— one brings the viewfinder behind the lens so 
that the cameraman can line up the shot. By means of a 
turnscrew, the body of the camera can then be slid back 
into position to photograph the scene. All this is done 
without physically moving the lens. 

*Today the use of quartz-halogen lighting has supplanted 
a good deal of incandescent equipment. Quartz lights have 
the advantage of maintaining their Kelvin (color 
temperature) until bum-out. 

frame of film. After exposure the 
camera is racked back to the viewfinder; 
you check the frame number on the tim- 
ing sheet, step around to adjust your 
dinosaurs and you set up for your sec- 
ond shot. 

Routine. So far. 

The work proceeds smoothly and you 
are getting a good sequence in the can, 
on time. But somewhere in the back- 
ground of your stunningly realistic set 
of plants, a live, miniature primrose, 
which everyone thought looked so 
"right" for the set, begins to bloom! 
The primrose, tiny and in the back- 
ground, goes unnoticed as it slowly 
takes five hours to completely open. 

The damage is done. When the se- 
quence comes back from the lab and 
you sit in the screening room proudly 
watching the extra-dramatic way you 
have gotten the mouth of dinosaur "A" 
to open and sink its teeth into dinosaur 
"B," someone shouts: "Hey, look at 
the magic flower!" And sure enough, 
there through the magic of time-lapse 
photography, a now not-so-tiny prim- 
rose bursts into full bloom. All the 
fierce action of the tyrannosaurus has 
been upstaged by a plant. 

The sequence must be scrapped and 
completely redone. Farfetched? Nope. 
It actually happened to Willis O'Brien. 

Above: The final composite from Golden 
Voyage of Sinbad utilizing traveling matte 
and model animation in "Dynarama." 

Compare the finished composite (above) with 
the model figure on its ground base, posi- 
tioned in front of the miniature projection 
screen. Mr. Harryhausen has been very suc- 
cessful in matching the eye lines between 
his animated figures and the live action. 


■ 1 1 1 1 ■ ■ i ■ i m i, 

Above and Left: From Sinbad and the Eye 
of the Tiger, this series of frame blow- 
ups reads from right to left. Every third 
frame in the sequence is shown as Zenobia's 
ghoul slowly rises from the flames to do 
battle with Sinbad. This latest of the 
Harryhausen Sinbad series makes use of 
new, fine grain emulsions that radically 
improve the look of the process photog- 
raphy necessary for the Dynamation pro- 
cess. Note the small amount of change 
from frame to frame even with the every- 
third-frame selection in this sequence. 

Above: Note the calibration device on the 
set that can swing in and out of the shot 
between individual frame exposure. 

Above right and right: Gene Warren, Jr. 
uses two calibration devices: one on the 
animated rope and the other for "Dopey." 

it is less common nowadays to use 
live foliage since so much good foliage 
is made from plastic and is impervious 
to temperature and humidity; it doesn't 
fade, and . . . it doesn't grow! 

When live action must be combined 
with a model animation sequence, there 
are two general approaches to be con- 
sidered. Should the live action be filmed 
first and model sequences inserted later, 
or vice-versa? Ray Harryhausen usually 
films the live action first with cardboard 
cut-outs standing in for the models. 
Gene Warren on Land of the Lost 
shoots the model sequences first on 
table-top and inserts the live action 


later. Ray prefers exotic out-of-the-way 
locations (such as the ancient city of 
Petra seen in Sinbad and the Eye of the 
Tiger), while Gene Warren achieves a 
look of breath-taking beauty and ab- 
solute control over the elements of his 
table-top sets for Land of the Lost. 

In the early days, a common solution 
to the live-action-with-model-sequences 
problem was to project the model anim- 
ation footage from behind a screen 
(rear-projected) which served as the 
backdrop for a live-action full scale set. 
The rear-screen projector and the live- 
action camera were electronically linked 
so that the projector shutter and camera 

shutter were both open at the same time. 
The live-action was staged in front of 
the screen, and the two sequences 
photographed as one. 

Alternatively, when glass paintings 
were used in miniature settings, an area 
of the glass could be painted black so 
that live-action footage could be 
superimposed after the model sequence 
was completed. This was one method of 
achieving a large scale "dinosaur fight- 
to-the-death" with live actors inserted 
optically into the blacked-out portion of 
the miniature set. 

A commonly used technique today 
for combining live action and model 

«■ II " II 

6 >$*? 




Above and right: Another sort of calibration device used by 
Ray Harryhausen to help his actors keep the same focus when work- 
ing with creatures that will be added months later in the studio. 

Far left: On the set of Sinbad and the 
Eye of the Tiger, Director Sam Wanamaker 
describes the action of the creatures 
for the benefit of actors on the live- 
action set. The creature cut-outs keep 
the actor's eye-lines and actions on a 
single focus. Such unity makes the model 
animators job much easier. Left: Finished 
composite with the model walrus replacing 
the cardboard cutout. Below: First Men In 
The Moon was Harryhausen's first Panavi- 
sion feature. (Selenites versus the Mooncalf.) 

Photo: © 1964 Columbia Pictures 

Left: Ray manipulates the model of the 
princess's maid who is transformed by 
Sokurah to entertain the court at Bagdad. 

Above: Kouras is accompanied by his dragon 
guard in The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad, So- 
kurah is inserted by means of split-screen. 

Below: The finished composite achieved by 
means of miniature projection was one of 
the most remarkable sequences of the film. 

animation involves a process known as 
miniature projection. Here the live ac- 
tion is photographed first, with the ac- 
tors referring to the continuity sketches 
so they can more easily play a scene. 
Mr. Harryhausen gives his actors a 
guide in the form of cardboard cutouts 
so that the scale of the model will be 
maintained. The actor needs a physical 
guide to match eyelines between the live- 
action footage and the miniatures to be 

After the live action is satisfactorily 
photographed, the footage is projected 
a frame at a time on a miniature screen 
which forms the backdrop to the mini- 
ature tabletop. The live action is then 
rephotographed with the miniature as 
it's animated frame-by-frame, and the 
illusion of interaction between the 
model and live actors is produced. 

Mr. Harryhausen has considerably 
refined this technique so that his 
animated models can appear to be 
within a live-action scene. The live 
action is rear-projected as before on a 
miniature screen behind the model. The 
model is photographed full length with 
no attempt made to hide the edge of the 
tabletop. That portion of the rear- 
projected plate that was blocked by the 
table edge is optically superimposed 

over the table edge. This, in effect, 
causes the animated model to be sand- 
wiched between a rear-projected plate 
and an optically matted foreground 
lifted from the rear-projected plate. 

The process is slow and requires many 
tests for density matching, illumination, 
matte registration etc., but new methods 
and techniques are being developed 
every day as new problems are dealt 

Audiences will continue to be 
delighted and amazed by special effects 
sequences just as they were in 1922 when 
Sir Arthur left Harry Houdini in open- 
mouthed wonder pointing at real films 
of long-dead, prehistoric dinosaurs. Im- 
possible . . . but there they are . . . 
alive. *fc 

Next issue, STARLnn^ o 
Television Edtinn-,, 8 Special 
the SFXs e f'T' ™u" con t'nue 

standard terhf- & of tne 

stud -os a n T e t USedinT V 
luatos and videotaof. 

Production, along w7th tho 

newest and most *£* * 

^cessinTat t fieTd aZ ' n9 






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sampling of the mutations which could inhabit the many 

A vast starship, a virtual world in itself, carrying col- 
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lYIETfllYIORPHDS.S ALPHA is a role-playing game in the grand tradition of 






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(Continued from page 39) 

specialists, but 

of the Shuttle's 
program, many 

available ' ' pay load 
they're working on it. 
With the creations 
"visiting astronaut" 
hopeful space pioneers wonder: "What 
field should I study in college to increase 
the chances of my becoming an astro- 
naut?" Most NASA officials can't 
answer that question directly but can of- 
fer a reply in reverse. They advise 
anyone interested at all in the space pro- 
gram to study and master any one of a 
countless number of disciplines in 
school or on the job. But, they are quick 
to point out, it should be a field or a 
subject that the space lover enjoys and 
can excel in. After the subject is picked 
and knowledge is garnered, then and 
ONLY then should a prospective pay- 
load specialist look for a possible space 

Once an eager space enthusiast has 
met NASA's qualifications and has 
been picked as a payload specialist, he 
or she will have to go through a period 
of preparation. The most crucial plan- 
ning for a mission will always be in the 
subject of specialization which has 
justified the part-time astronaut's selec- 
tion for the flight in the first place. 
(Remember, the whole purpose of the 
semi-spaceman program is to advance 
the "state of the art" in one's chosen 
field.) With each payload specialist's 
ticket to space costing over three million 
dollars, those lucky ones chosen had 
better spend a lot of time boning up on 
his or her top subjects preparing a 
series of original and appropriate ex- 
periments to take place on board the 

After the homework aspect of the 
flight is done, NASA will teach to all 
those chosen the mechanics of living in 
space via correspondence courses and a 
one month orientation program of lec- 
tures and simulations. In Houston, all 
the newly picked passengers will finally 
meet their colleagues and shipmates. As 
a full crew, the embryonic Shuttle 
troupe will go through a series of 
launch, orbit and landing exercises. 
Finally, the payload specialists •will 
study the corollary minor experiments 
which they will conduct or assist in for 
the benefit of other scientists not actual- 
ly on the flight. Once finishing the six 
months of preparation, there is only one 
further task awaiting the part-time 
astronaut: Lift-off! 

So, after years of dreaming, the reali- 
ty of space flight for science-fiction fans 
will finally be here. The rockets will 
roar. The acceleration will feel crushing. 
The Universe will stretch infinitely out- 
side the spaceship window. 

Fantasy and reality will meld. 

Those one thousand tickets for space 
are waiting. «fc 


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State _ 


Above: Nasa's solar sailing craft, the Yankee Clipper. The 
Shuttle will release the sail at an altitude of approximately 
five hundred miles; the sail is then unfurled. The rectangular 

vanes at the ends of the booms are used for steering the Clipper. 
Below: Two views of Halley's Comet, taken May 12 and 15, 1910. 
It was photographed in Honolulu with a 10-inch Tessar lens. 


"The first sailors had gone out almost a hundred years 
before. They had started with small sails not over two 
thousand miles square. Gradually the size of the sails 
increased. The technique of adiabatic packing and the 
carrying of passengers in individual pods reduced the 
damage done to the human cargo. It was great news when a 
sailor returned to Earth, a man born and reared under the 
light of another star. He was a man who had spent a month 
of agony and pain, bringing a few sleep-frozen settlers, 
guiding the immense light-pushed sailing craft. . ." 

That's from one of the now-numerous romances of 
science fiction in which star-crossed lovers are at the mercy 
of old age and the speed of light. The story is Cordwainer 
Smith's "The Lady Who Sailed the Soul" dating from the 
late 50s and featuring a wildly speculative notion: that 
high-speed interstellar craft might be propelled by means 
of an unthinkably large metal sail pushed by sun and 
starlight. A truly incredible idea! 

Actually, the first published mention of solar 
sailing — according to researchers at NASA — dates from 
only a few years prior to Smith's story. In May, 1951, an 
article by Carl A. Wiley (using the pen name of Russell 
Saunders) appeared in Astounding Science Fiction 

Entitled "Clipper Ships of Space," Wiley's article 
proposed a "light- jammer" sail-spacecraft which would 
"obtain mechanical forces from the Sun's radiation of great 
enough magnitude to drive a spaceship between the 

In the same issue of Astounding, Willie Ley, the famed 
scientist, commented on the idea. He conceded that "the 
idea itself is fascinating," but said the project was 
"commercially unfeasible" because it couldn't even be tried 
until "after rockets have opened up space and enabled us to 
build artificial satellites." 

About six years later, Sputnik I and Explorer I attained 
orbits in space. 

Although science and science-fiction readers have heard 
little about light-sailing since (and the general public has 
heard nothing at all), the idea was never allowed to perish. 
In 1958 Richard L. Garwin of the IBM Watson Scientific 
Laboratory at Columbia University wrote a short paper on 
"Solar Sailing — a Practical Method of Propulsion Within 
the Solar System" for the American Rocket Society's Jet 
Propulsion Journal. 

There followed numerous technical articles through the 
60s and into the 70s. In 1969, the year man first set foot 
on the Moon, NASA's Office of Advanced Space 
Technology funded the first studies by Astro Research 
Corporation and MacNeal Schwendler Corporation on solar 
sail technology. 

These studies, and a later one done by NASA's Lewis 
Research Center, produced interesting but far from exciting 

Finally, a 1973 study at Batelle Memorial Institute 
produced a favorable summary report for NASA. Headed 
by Jerome L. Wright, the project not only established the 
feasibility of aluminized plastic solar sails up to 800 meters 
square, but discovered the opportunity of a spacecraft 
rendezvous with Halley's Comet in 1986 using such a sail. 

The idea Cordwainer Smith expressed in his story — the 
idea that seemed more fantasy than scientific extrapolation 
two decades ago — is about to be given concrete reality. 

From the pages of Mar- 
vel Comics' Thor, comes 
the mystic solar sail- 
ing ship Starjammer. 
In 1972, Harcourt Brace 
published a collection 
of short stories by Ar- 
thur C. Clarke called 
The Wind from the Sun. 
The title story, orig- 
inally called "Sunjammei 
is about a solar sail- 
ng competition— very 
much like a yacht race— 
from the Earth to the 
Moon. Fred Pohl wrote 
a similar story with 
the very same title. 

NASA's official Solar Sailing Development Program, 
headquartered at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 
Pasadena, asked itself: Why not use the Sun's photon 
energy to propel a large reflective sail on a free ride 
through space? Why not employ the concept for long-term, 
low-thrust space missions in the 1980's — including the 
proposed Halley's Comet rendezvous? 

Spokesmen at JPL explain their mission: 

"The Solar Sail would employ a mirror-like aluminized 
plastic surface to attract the radiating photons, which carry 
momentum. When reflected, the photons change 
momentum and a force is exerted against the reflective 
surface — much like a wind against a sail. 

"Speed of the Solar Sailcraft depends upon distance from 
the Sun and the size, weight and angle of the sail. The 
greater the sail surface and proximity to the Sun, the 
greater the reflectivity pressure or energy thrust. 

"The sail, its proponents say, has the potential of vast 
improvement over ballistic (rocket) trajectories. Since it 
would carry no fuel, it would be cheaper than conventional 
spacecraft systems. 

"By tacking against (or with) the solar photon stream, 
the Solar Sailcraft could fly inward toward the Sun or 
outward. NASA and JPL would, if the plan succeeds, 
demonstrate the Solar Sail with a 1981-2 launch from the 
Space Shuttle towards the Sun and a trajectory-reversal 
outward to intercept Halley's Comet in March, 1986. For 
the definitive first flight, the furled sail would be taken to 
the Shuttle platform and erected by astronauts in the space 

"The technology development program, headed by Louis 
D. Friedman, includes design of an 800-meter square plastic 
film sheet that's only 2.5 microns thick, plus ultra- 
lightweight extensible booms for the spars and masts of the 
Solar Sail." 

The NASA sail is only about a half mile square; the one 
Cordwainer Smith imagined was 20,000 miles wide and 
80,000 miles long — so large it could take days or weeks for 
a fast-moving robot to scurry out along the sail to make 

But if it seems that our feeble first photon flight is 
insignificant, consider the German V-2. It once seemed 
huge and awesome; two decades later it was tiny and quaint 
and thrust out of memory by the thunderous lift-off of an 
Apollo/Saturn skyscraper. If the sail succeeds, subsequent 
models will be larger and faster and more complex. Today 
a comet, tomorrow the stars? -fr